9th Century

800      Harun al Rashid and Charlemagne exchange ambassadors.

 

 

 

800      Ibn al-Aghlabid, ( -12)  governor of Ifriqiyya (Tunisia, capital Qayrawan). Aghlabids rule region from  800-909.

800      Islamic merchants in China (Canton). Foundation of a paper factory in Baghdad.

800      Sicily comes under Muslim rule

800      – 1200 Jews experience a “golden age” of creativity and toleration in Spain under Moorish (Muslim) rule.

800      Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu r-Rashid give keys to the Holy Sepulcher to the Frankish king, thus acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.

800       Al-Jawhari

800      Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia

800      Harun al-Rashid sends a diplomatic mission to the court of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor.

800      Shafi preaches that God’s will is manifested both by the Koran and by the “sunna” (the practice of Mohammed embodied in “hadiths”)

800      The Abbasid caliph Harun al­Rashid appoints Ibrahim I ibn al­Aghlab as governor of Ifriqiya (Tunisia and western Libya) and Kairouan Al Qairawan becomes the leading African center for Sunni Islam

801      The city of Fez is established. Charlemagne begins an invasion of Muslim Spain.

801      The death of Rabi’ah al-Adawiyyah, a noted female Sufi teacher and poet.

801      Charlemagne’s son Louis captures Barcelona from the Arabs, creating the Spanish March along the Pyrenees (Aragonia and Catalonia)

801      Vikings begin selling slaves to Muslims.

801      The death of Rabi’ah al-Adawiyyah, a noted female Sufi teacher and poet.

803      Harun al-Rashid murders his vizier, Ja’far the Barmecide (Al Barmak), and orders the destruction of this powerful vizierial family.

803            Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Ja’far ibn Yahya Barmki.

805            Harun al-Rashid establishes a public hospital in Baghdad. A pharmacy is contained within the hospital and its patients are divided into wards. Medical schools utilize the hospital for the teaching of their students. Hospitals soon spread throughout the Islamic world.

805            Outbreak of revolt of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Khurasan.

805              al-Kindi

805            Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress.

806            Conquest of Tyana; Arab advance as far as Ankyra.

806            Harun al-Rashid leads a huge campaign against the Byzantines.

806            Hien Tsung becomes the Emperor of China. During his reign a shortage of copper leads to the introduction of paper money.

807            Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses and of the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.

808            Hunayn

808            Foundation of Fez by the Idnsids.

808            Idris II founds Fez in Morocco

809            – 813 Abbasid Al-Amin Caliph in Baghdad

809            Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.

809            The death of Harun al-Rashid. Al-Amin becomes khalif upon father’s death. Al-Mamun challenges his brother Caliphate.

809            Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.

809            -13 Caliphate of al-Amin. After the death of Harun al-Rashid the empire was divided between his two sons. Al-Ma’mun, who was supported by Khurasanian troops, defeated al-Amin and reunited the empire (813)

809            -13 Caliphate of al-Amin. After the death of Harun al-Rashid the empire was divided between his two sons. Al-Ma’mun, who was supported by Khurasanian troops, defeated al-Amin and reunited the empire (813)

809            Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.

809            Death of al-Rashid and accession of al-Amin, sparking a crisis of succession.

809            Harun Rashid dies, after expanding the caliphate from Gibraltar to the Indu river

810            Banu Musa, Ahmad.

810           In Baghdad, the jurist al-Shafi’i, pupil of Malik ibn Anas begins the systematisation of the sources of the Sharia.

810             Banu Musa, al-Hasan.

810             Banu Musa, Muhammad.

810             Muhammad al-Taqi, the 9th Shia Imam was born.

811            This Battle of Rayy (one among many) was fought on May 1, 811 CE as part of an Abbasid civil war (the “Fourth Fitna“) between the two half-brothers, al-Amin and al-Ma’mun.
800                    Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu r-Rashid give keys to the Holy Sepulcher to the Frankish king, thus acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.

811              Battle of Rayy in Persia.

812            August Abbasid Civil War the Siege of Baghdad begins

813            Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.

813            – 833 Al-Ma’mun Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

813            Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome.

813            -33 Caliphate of al-Ma’mun. Cultural and scientific heyday. Promotion of translations of the works of Greek philosophers and scientists (‘academy’ or Bayt al-Hikma) Theological controversy over whether the Qur’an is created or uncreated and eternal. Suppression of the traditionalist piety of the ahl al-hadith in favour of the rationalistic dogmatics of the Mu’tazila. Tendencies towards independence in the provinces.

813            Al-Ma’mun, son of Harun al-Rashid, defeats his brother after a four-year struggle for power, and becomes Caliph. Al-Ma’mun is a partisan of the Mu’tazilite school of rationalist, speculative Islamic theology that flourished from the eighth to the tenth century.

813            Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.

813            Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome.

813            September Abbasid Civil War The Khurasanian army under Tahir ibn al-Husayn besieged and conquered Baghdad for al-Ma’mun. and the death of al-Amin

814            April 04,Death of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

814            Death of Abu Nuwas, representative of new themes and forms in Arabic poetry.

814            Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.

814            Death of Charlemagne, Emperor of Europe.

815            Al Khwarizmi invents the science of Algebra and develops the mathematics of equations..The Abbasid Empire begins a slow process of disintegration. The Idrisids in North Africa and the Tahirids in Persia become autonomous.

815             Shi’a revolt under Abu ‘l-Saraya al-Sirri in Iraq. Harthama ibn A’yan quells the revolt.

815            Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.

816            Death of the Sufi Ma’ruf al-Karkhi.

816            Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica.

816            With the support of Moors, the Basques revolt against the Franks in Glascony.

816            -37Revolts of Babak (Mazdakite sects of the Khurramiyya, dualists who believed in the transmigration of souls) against the landed nobility and Arabs in Adharbayjan, from 827 also in Western Persia. In Marv, al-Ma’mun designates the eighth Shi’ite imam ‘Ali al-Rida (d.818) as his successor short-lived attempt at reconciliation with the ‘Alids.

817            The revolt against al-Hakam I in Cordoba. Part of the population migrates to Fez, creating the city’s “Anadalusian quarter.”

817            . Harthama ibn A’yan is executed.

817            -9 Anti-caliphate of Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi in Baghdad. After the overthrow of the pretender, al-Ma’mun retumed to Baghdad..
818                    The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia Ali al-Rida dies in MashhadMuhammad al-Taqi becomes Imam.

817            -9 Anti-caliphate of Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi in Baghdad. After the overthrow of the pretender, al-Ma’mun retumed to Baghdad.

819                    Mamun comes to Baghdad.

819            the Samanids in Khurasan (Transoxania) become virtually independent; Persian unity begins to disintegrate with the Samanid rulers in Northern Persia, whose rule in this region lasts until 1055 CE. One year later, the Tharid dynasty begins to control Khorastan (lasting until 874 CE), and in 864 CE, the Alid dynasty begins rule over Tabaristan (lasting until 1032 CE).

820 Death of Imam al Shafi’i, after whom the Shafi’i school of Fiqh is named. Rise of the Aghlabids in North Africa.

820             Al-Mahani

820            Death of Imam al-Shafi’i, founder of one of the four Sunni madhhabs ..

821            -73 Al-Mamun appoints Tahir I ibn al-Husain governor of Persia and the east. He establishes a dynasty that retains effective control of the region until replaced by the Saffarids and Samanids.

822            Music flourishes at the court of Cordoba under the musician al Zirhab.  The musician Ziryab arrives in Cordoba and establishes a grand style and refinement of the arts of living and socializing. The Aghlabid armies from North Africa invade Sicily.

822            Abd al Rahman II becomes the Arab emir of Spain and begins construction of the Alcazar of Sevilla

822            Death of Al-Hakam, emir of Cordova. He is succeeded by Abd al-Rahman II.(822-52)

823            Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani.

823            Death of the historian al-Waqidi.

825            or 6 Death of the poet Abu l-‘Atahiya.

825            Establishment of the Emirate of Crete.

825            caliph Al­Mamun sponsors translations of Greek classics into Arabic, and founds the first madrasa (a “house of wisdom” in Baghdad)

825            the Arab mathematician Al Khwarizmi of Baghdad writes a book on “Hindu numerals” that spreads the use of “Arabic” numerals

826              Thabit

826            -827Arab invaders conquer Crete and plunder the Greek Isles. They embark on the conquest of Sicily and Sardinia.

827            June 827 Sicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

827      Beginning of the conquest of Sicily. Al-Ma’mun initiates the Mihna (Inquisition, continued by his successors until 848) the authority of the state supports the theological teaching of the Mu’tazila, especially the dogma of the ‘createdness’ of the Koran. The traditionalist Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) is persecuted as the representative of the opposition of the ahl al-hadith to rationalist theology.

827      The Aghlabids defeat the Byzantines at Sicily. Sicily blooms under Islamic rule. New crops are introduced, such as citrus fruits, cotton and date palms, made possible by new irrigation methods brought in by the new rulers. Other industries also grow, namely silk and papermaking which enters Europe through Sicily

827       Ali al-Hadi, the 10th Shia Imam is born. Ma’mun declares the Mu’tazili creed as the state religion. Beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily. The Idrisids capture Crete, Sardinia and Sicily.

827            Beginning of the conquest of Sicily. Al-Ma’mun initiates the Mihna (Inquisition, continued by his successors until 848) the authority of the state supports the theological teaching of the Mu’tazila, especially the dogma of the ‘createdness’ of the Koran. The traditionalist Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) is persecuted as the representative of the opposition of the ahl al-hadith to rationalist theology.

827            CE Aghlabi rulers of Tunis begin conquests of Sicily which last until 878 CE.

827            The Aghlabids defeat the Byzantines at Sicily. Sicily blooms under Islamic rule. New crops are introduced, such as citrus fruits, cotton and date palms, made possible by new irrigation methods brought in by the new rulers. Other industries also grow, namely silk and papermaking which enters Europe through Sicily

827             Ali al-Hadi, the 10th Shia Imam is born. Ma’mun declares the Mu’tazili creed as the state religion. Beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily. The Idrisids capture Crete, Sardinia and Sicily.

827            Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.

827      an Arab tribe, the Saracens, invade Sicily

827      JuneSicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

829      -830Revolts of the Coptic Christian community, in Egypt.

830      The Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) is established in Baghdad. Scholars from all cultures and religions were recruited and supported at this academy, where learning and research flourished. The transcription of Greek manuscripts of scientific and philosophical works was one of the most important tasks, without which may have been lost to the modern world. Mohammad al-Khawarizmi, mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, completes “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing.” Due to his major contributions to Algebra, he is also known as the “father of Algebra.”

830            Ahmad ibn Hanbal strict obedience to the Koran and the Hadith

830            1258 House of Wisdom, Baghdad  Activities at this library and research centre included translation of Greek works into Arabic by both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. Free public libraries later spread to other cities.

831            Fall of Palermo after Arab siege (remains under Islamic authority until 1072).

831            Muslim Crusaders capture Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.

831             Muslims capture the Sicilian city of Palermo and make it their capital.

833             9 August— Death of Ma’mun. Accession of al-Mu’tasim. He creates an army of Turkish slave-soldiers.

833             9 August— Death of Ma’mun. Accession of al-Mu’tasim. He creates an army of Turkish slave-soldiers.

833            Sultan al­Mutasim creates a regiment of Turkish slaves .

833            -42 Caliphate of al-Mu’tasim. Formation of a bodyguard of Turkish as well as other elite troops to protect the caliph
835                     Birth of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun will establish himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

835            Ahmed

835-          Birth of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun will establish himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

835             Muhammad al-Taqi is poisoned. Ali al-Hadi becomes Imam. 835 Death of Imam al Jawwad.

835             Muhammad al-Taqi is poisoned. Ali al-Hadi becomes Imam. 835 Death of Imam al Jawwad.

836            Al-Mu’tasim founds the residential and garrison city of Samarra.

836                    Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra.

837            Revolt of the Jats.

837            – 901Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

837            The caliph, al-Mutasim, sends his army to Adharbayjan under general Afshin to put down the twenty year rebellion of the Khurramiyya under Babak

837            The caliph, al-Mutasim, sends his army to Adharbayjan under general Afshin to put down the

837            -901 Aghlabids (Muslim) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

837            -901 Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.

838            Revolt of Babak Khorramdin in Azarbaijan suppressed. Sack of Amorium by al-Mu’tasim. Umayyad armies from Spain occupy Marseilles France.

838            Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.

838             Muslim raiders sack Marseille.

839 Revolt of Mazyar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.

839            Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.

840            the sufist Muhasibi preaches the path to truth 840 Islamic philosophy is founded by Kindi

840            Sibovayh, a Persian scholar, codifies the Arabic grammar and writes the first Arabic dictionary

841            The general al-Afshin dies in prison, accused of apostasy to Zoroastrianism.

841             Muslim forces capture Bari, principle Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

842             5 January— Death of al-Mu’tasim, accession of al-Wathiq. Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. – 847

842            -7 Caliphate of al-Wathiq, last representative of strong ‘Abbasid political power.

843            Revolts of the Arabs. Unsuccessful Byzantine attempt to reconquer the Emirate of Crete.

844            The Normans attack Spain and occupied Seville.

844            nvasion of Spain and occupation of Seville by the Normans.

845            6 Death of  al-Naẓẓām

846            Al-Wathiq succeeds his father to the Caliphate. The Turkish armies gain power during his reign.

846            Al-Wathiq succeeds his father to the Caliphate. The Turkish armies gain power during his reign.

846            The Aghlabids in North Africa occupy Pisa and conduct a raid on Rome.Battle of Mauropotamos between Byzantines and Abbasids in Asia Minor.

846             Hasan al-Askari, the 11th Shia Imam is born.
847                    Death of the mathematician and geographer al-Khwarazmi, from whose name we derive the term algorithm.

846            Muslim raiders sail a fleet of ships from Africa up the Tiber river and attack outlying areas around Ostia and Rome. Some manage to enter Rome and damage the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Not until Pope Leo IV promises a yearly tribute of 25,000 silver coins do the raiders leave. The Leonine Wall is built in order to fend off further attacks such as this.

846            the Uighurs state collapses and the Karakhanid state is founded in Transoxania

847                    Death of the mathematician and geographer al-Khwarazmi, from whose name we derive the term algorithm.

847            Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil. 847-861 Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

847            -61 Caliphate of al-Mutawakkil. abandons Mu’tazilite doctrines. The doctrine of the ahl al-hadith is recognised as orthodoxy. Anti-rationalist reaction Persecution of the Shi’a. First caliph who was murdered by his bodyguards.

847            -61 Caliphate of al-Mutawakkil. abandons Mu’tazilite doctrines.The doctrine of the ahl al-hadith is recognised as orthodoxy. Anti-rationalist reaction Persecution of the Shi’a. First caliph who was murdered by his bodyguards.

847            -861 Under Caliph al-Mutawakkil, once again Christians and Jews are required to wear the blue and yellow patches, respectively.

847            Death of the mathematician and geographer al-Khwarazmi. The word ‘algorithm’ comes from his name.

849            Death of  Abū l-Hudhayl

849            caliph al­Mutawakkil deposes the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church and persecutes Christians

849            Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.

849             Battle of Ostia Aghlabid monarch Muhammad sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

849            Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.

849                    Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.
849                    – Battle of Ostia- Aghlabid monarchProphet Muhammad (pbuh)sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

850      Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer.

850- Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.

850      Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer, and orders Christians and Jews to attach wooden devils to the doors of their homes.

850      Eulogious leads a Christian revolt against the Umyyads in Spain 878 the Muslims conquer all of Sicily

850      the Persian mathematician Khwarazmi founds Algebra and invents the Arabix numerals

850             Abu Kamil.

850             Al-Battani

850             Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer, and orders Christians and Jews to attach wooden devils to the doors of their homes.

850            -875 The Tradition is formalized. Turkish influence in the Caliphate grows.

850      -875 The Tradition is formalized. Turkish influence in the Caliphate grows.

850      Hunayn ibn Ishaq translates Greek classics

850      Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.

850      The Acropolis of Zimbabwe was built in Rhodesia.

851            Abd al-Rahman II has eleven young Christians executed in the city of Cordova after they deliberately seek out martyrdom by insulting the Prophet Muhammed.

852            Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.-86 Muhammad I of Cordoba.

855            Death of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the teacher of hadith and the authority on the shariah who gave his name to the school of the Hanbalites.

855            Revolt of the Christians of Hims (Syria)

856             Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.

856            Aghlabid forces rout the Venetian navy and sack Rome and the Vatican, forcing the Pope to flee..

856            Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.

858            Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.

860            Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.

857            Death of al-Muhasibi, an important teacher of Islamic piety and theology. Sufi Al-Muhasibi introduces the study of conscience into Sufism.
858                    Al-Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.

858            Muslim raiders attack Constantinople.

859            Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (Enna), slaughtering several thousand inhabitants.

860            Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.

861            Murder of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil; accession of Al-MuntasirAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad and beginning of the “Anarchy at Samarra“. A decade of domination by Turkish soldiery begins. University of Kairaouine (established 859 CE) in Fes, Morocco.

861            -945 Collapse of the ‘Abbasid political power. The provinces, beginning with those at the furthest remove from Baghdad, gradually slip away from the caliphate.

862      Muntasir poisoned to death;  Musta’in becomes Khalifa. The Turks are in full control of the Caliphate.

862      -66 Caliphate of al-Musta’in, who, like his two successors, is completely under the domination of the Turkish guard.

863      The Battle of Lalakaon breaks the power of the emirate of Malatya. Start of the Byzantine counter-offensive.

864       Zaydi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan ibn Zayd (Alavids)..

865      Party struggles of the Turkish generals. The population of Baghdad under the caliph defends the city against the Turkish army from Samarra.

865      C.926 Al-Razi (Rhazes) Persian who contributed to medicine, alchemy and philosophy. He formulated the first known description of smallpox, which the Ancient Greeks had confused with measles.

866      The Turks select Mu’tazz as the next Khalifa.

866      – 869 Al-Mu’tazzAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

866            – Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.

866            – Emperor Louis II travels from Germany to southern Italy to battle the Muslim raiders causing trouble there.

866             Abbasid Civil War Al-Musta’in flees from Samarra, his deposition and accession of al-Mu’tazz;

866            -9 Caliphate of al-Mu’tazz. Overthrow and murder of al-Mustain. Ya’qub ibn Laith al-Saffar (867-879) seizes control of Sistan. By the end of the ninth century he and his brother control, briefly, most of Iran except the northwest.

866            Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.

866            Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Ukhaidhir, a descendent of Ali, establishes an independent kingdom in Yamamah.

866      Emperor Louis II travels from Germany to southern Italy to battle the Muslim raiders causing trouble there.

866      Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.

867             Ya’qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.

867            the Saffarids (shiite) in eastern Persia become virtually independent with capital in Zaranj (Afghanistan)

868             Ali al-Hadi is poisoned. Hasan al-Askari becomes ImamMuhammad al-Mahdi, the last Imam of shiite is born.

868            -905 Ahmad ibn Tulun(868-83) and theTulunids independent as governors in Egypt. Egypt breaks away

868            Death of al-Jahiz, writer, philosopher, and satirist, and author of such notable works asKitab al-Hayawan (The Book of Animals) and Kitab al-Bukhala (The Book of Misers).

868            The Sattarid dynasty, whose rule would continue until 930, extended Muslim control throughout most of Persia. In Egypt, the Abbasid and Umayyad caliphates ended and the Egyptian-based Tulunid dynasty took over (lasting until 904).

869            – 883 Revolt of black slaves in Iraq.

869            Al-Muhtadi becomes Khalifa; he is noted as a just and pious ruler during his short reign.

869            Death of Muhammad ibn Kar(r)am, teacher of the Karramiyya sect popular in Khurasan (around Nishapur).

869          The Abbasid Caliph Mu’tazz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of al-Muhtadi. Beginning of Zanj Rebellion in Basra.

869            Death of Muhammad ibn Kar(r)am, teacher of the Karramiyya sect popular in Khurasan (around Nishapur).

869            -70 Caliphate of al-Muhtadi. Uprising of Negro slaves (Zanj) in Southern Iraq under the ‘Alid leader, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad, who founds of an autonomous state (869-883).

869            -883 Revolt of black slaves in Iraq

869            Arabs capture the island of Malta.

87        9 Destruction of the important Islamic trade settlement in the Chinese sea-port of Canton (Khanfu).

870      The Zanj, workers from East Africa, revolt in Iraq. Death of Al Farabi and Al Kindi, noted men of science. Death of Al Tabari, renowned physician.The Muslims capture Malta.

870            (?) Death of al-Kindi, the first great Muslim Arab philosopher and scientist.

870            – After a month-long siege, the Sicilian city of Syracuse is captured by Muslim invaders.

870            Al-Mu’tamid becomes Khalifa upon the assassination of al-Muhtadi by the Turks. Malta is conquered. Arabs introduce irrigation machines to the islands and Maltese language and culture is greatly influenced by Arab rule. The death of Muhammad al-Bukhari; he compiled one of the six canonical collections of hadith (the reported sayings and actions of the Prophet.

870            Death of al-Bukhari, author of the most respected canonical collection of hadith (al-Sahih).

870      Bukhari collects and classifies the “hadiths”

870      Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid.

870       After a month-long siege, the Sicilian city of Syracuse is captured by Muslim invaders.

870      -92  Caliphate of al-Mu’tamid. His brother al-Muwaffaq, as regent restores power in the territory between Syria and Khurasan.

870      Death of al-Kindi, the first major Arab philosopher. He was influenced by Aristotelian Neo-Platonism, and made significant contributions to such diverse fields as astrology, medicine, and mathematics. Due to European political and social instability since the collapse of the Roman Empire, it was philosophers in Arab centers of learning who preserved and developed Greek philosophy throughout the Middle Ages.

871            Ya’qub ibn Layth al-Saffar founds the Saffarid dynasty in Persia.

871      Ya’qub ibn Layth al-Saffar founds the Saffarid dynasty in Persia.

871       Bari is captured by Louis II of Italy, ending the Emirate of Bari.

871      King Alfred the Great of England created a system of government and education which allowed for the unification of smaller Anglo-Saxon states in the ninth and tenth centuries.

873      Death of  Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq

873      Ya’qub al-Saffar of Sistan conquers Khurasan from the Tahirids. Death of the Nestorian Hunayn ibn Ishaq, who led the most active phase of translating medical, scientific and philosophical works from Greek into Arabic. Disappearance of the twelfth imam of the Shi’a, who according to Shi’ite belief acts as ‘Lord of the Age’ in occultation (ghayba) and is awaited as the Mahdi at the end of time.

873      the Samanids (sunni), with capital in Bukhara, rule over Transoxania

873      Tahirid rule extinguished.

874            Independent rule of the Samanids in Persia. Native rulers who help renew Persian traditions and language.

874      Independent rule of the Samanids in Persia. Native rulers who help renew Persian traditions and language.

874      Death of Abul Hussain Muslim, compiler of Hadith. Death of Imam al Askari. Death of al Kindi, mathematician, astronomer. Death of al Bistami, one of the most celebrated Sufi Shaikhs.

874      Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr.

874       Hasan al-Askari is poisoned. Muhammad al-Mahdi becomes Imam. Zanji state established at al-Muktara during the Zanj Rebellion in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr I.

874            Death of Abul Hussain Muslim, compiler of Hadith. Death of Imam al Askari. Death of al Kindi, mathematician, astronomer. Death of al Bistami, one of the most celebrated Sufi Shaikhs.

874       Iceland is colonized by Vikings from Norway.

874      The imam accepted by a majority of Shi’i, Muhammad al-Muntazar, disappears. This imam, a child, is the twelfth in the line of imams, and many Shi’i believe he will one day return as the Mahdi, or messiah. Hence this group of Shi’i are known as the Ithna Asharis, or Twelvers.

875            Al-Nayrizi

875            Nasr ibn Ahmad (864-92) from the family of the Samanids (govemors of Khurasan since 819) receives the province of Transoxiana (Bukhara, Samarqand) from the caliph. The independent government of the Sunni Samanids in eastem Iran endures until 999. They actively promote New Persian literature and stimulate the awakening of Iranian national awareness. Death of Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, the author of a canonical collection of hadith.

876      Al-Muwaffaq defeats Ya’qub al-Saffar at Dayr al-‘Aqul on the Tigris.

876      -879 — The mosque of Ibn Tulun is constructed

876      Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy.

877      Ahmad ibn Tulun, govemor of Egypt, occupies Syria. Beginning of the construction of the mosque of Ibn Tulun in the garrison town of al-Qata’i’ (part of modem Cairo).

877      Death of Ya’qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar in Sistan, accession of Amr bin Layth.

877      Syria and different sects of Lebanon are ruled by various Muslim dynasties of Egypt until 1250 CE.

878      Fall of Syracuse, the Arabs seize Sicily from the Byzantines. Disappearance of Imam al Muntazar, the Twelfth Imam.Beginning of belief in the hidden Imam.

878      the Arabs capture Sicily and make Palermo their capital

879      the Safarid ruler Yaqub Leys revolts against the Arabs and unifies most of Persia

879      -928 ‘Umar ibn Hafsun and his sons challenge the authority of the Spanish Umayyad state. ???

879      The Seljuk Empire unites Mesopotamia and a large portion of Persia.

880       Sinan

880      the Abbasid dynasty is replaced in Egypt by a Turkic dynasty

880      The Aghlabids lose southern Italy to Christian forces.

880      Under Emperor Basil, the Byzantines recapture lands occupied by Arabs in Italy.

882      A rebellion of the Zanj in Iraq is crushed.

883      The army of the caliph put an end to the state of the rebellious Zanj.

884      Muslims invading Italy burn the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground.

884      Death of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun established himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

885      Death of Ahmad ibn Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun. Death of Dawud

885      Death of Dawud ibn Khalaf, expounder of the Zahiri school of Fiqh

886      Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of al-Mundhir. Death of Abdullah ibn Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.

887      Peasant revolt in China against foreigners forces out the Muslims of Canton

888      -912 In Cordoba, the caliphate of the Umayyad Abdallah. Ongoing strife with the rebels around Ibn Hafsun.

888      -912 In Cordoba, the caliphate of the Umayyad Abdallah. Ongoing strife with the rebels around Ibn Hafsun.

888      Death of Mundhir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi.

889      Death of the philologist, historian and theologian, Ibn Qutayba.

890      The Qarmatians armathians, Arab partisans of the Isma’ili Shi ‘a, under the leadership of Hamdan Qarmatians ammat active in Iraq and Syria. The growing militancy of the radical Shi ‘a accelerates the collapse of the caliphate.

890      The Qarmatians armathians, Arab partisans of the Isma’ili Shi ‘a, under the leadership of Hamdan Qarmatians ammat active in Iraq and Syria. The growing militancy of the radical Shi ‘a accelerates the collapse of the caliphate.

890 Spanish Muslims re-establish bases in southern France and conduct raids into Switzerland.

890        Spanish Muslims re-establish bases in southern France and conduct raids into Switzerland.

890      the Abbasids suppress the imamate of Oman

891      The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.

892      Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.

894      The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.

896      Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish.

897      Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.

898      Qarmatians sack Basra,800 – 1200- Jews experience a “golden age” of creativity and toleration in Spain under Moorish (Muslim) rule.

892      – 902 Al-Mu’tadidAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

892      Abbasid Caliph al-Mu’tamid death. al-Mu’tadid becomes Caliph. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr,

892      Death of the hadith scholarProphet Muhammad (pbuh)al-Tirmidhi, who first formulated rules for assessing the reliability of isnads (chains of transmission)

892      Death of the hadith scholar Muhammad al-Tirmidhi, who first formulated rules for assessing the reliability of isnads (chains of transmission;.
892      Abbasid Caliph al-Mu’tamid death. al-Mu’tadid becomes Caliph. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail I.

892      – Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.

892      Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.

892      -902 Caliphate of al-Mu’tadid, a period of great political and religious unrest.

892      -902 Caliphate of al-Mu’tadid, a period of great political and religious unrest.

893      Zaydi Imamate is established in Yemen by al-Hadi Yahya ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Qasim

893      A Zaydi Shi’i state is founded in Yemen, which continues to exist until 1962. Zaydis form a relatively moderate branch of Shi’ism and they believe that any descendant of Ali may be the Imam.

894      Qarmatians establish a state in eastern Arabian.

894      The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.

895      Al-Razi begins to study medicine. He comes to be a renowned physician, mathematician and chemist. He is the first to write an extensive book on medicine, COMPREHENSIVE BOOK ON MEDICINE. He discovered sulfuric acid and ethanol and developed its use in medicine. His numerous books greatly influenced European science and medicine.

896      Death of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun; accession of Abu ‘l-Asakir Jaysh.

897      Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.

898      The Zaydi (sect of Shi’ism) State is established in Yemen. Imam al Hadi Yahya establishes a Zaidi state in Yemen.

898      Qarmatians sack Basra. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 3 per cent of the total.

898            – Birth of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power.

898      Birth of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power.

899      the Samanids defeat the Saffarids and expand their empire to Persia but adopt the Persian language

900        The Fatimids of Egypt conquered north Africa and included the territory as an extension of Egypt until 972