614 the Persians defeated the Romans and captured Damascus and Jerusalem
630 Jan – Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) marched from Makkah Mukarramah on 6th Shawwal and arrived at the scene on 10th Shawwal 08AH (Jan 630 AD). The Muslim forces entered the valley in the morning after Fajr salat.
637 Saad bin Abi Vaqqas defeated Persians at the famous battle of Qadsiya in 16 A.H. and the whole Persia entered the folds of Islam
691 The Dome of the Rock was built by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik from 688 to 691 AD.
45 Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet’s father.
570 The Christian king of Yemen, Abraha leads an unsuccessful attack on Makkah. Muhammad (pbuh) ibn ‘Abdullāh is born in “the year of the Elephant” in Makkah into the tribe of Quraish.. He comes from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and upright character. His father, ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, had died before his birth, and his mother, Amina bint Wahb, swiftly puts him into the care of wet-nurse named Halimah.
573 Abu-Bakar Siddiq born 51 BH/573 CE, Makkah. d. 13 AH/23 August 634 (Tuesday) Medinah First Caliph (Khalifah) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Khalifatur-Rasool
575 Halimah returned Muhammad (pbuh) to his mother Amina
577 Muhammad (pbuh) visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother Aminah. Muhammad (pbuh) is taken in by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib.
577 Uthman ibn Affaan 47 BH/577 born in Makkah d. 18 Zul-Hijja 35 AH/17 June 656 (Friday) Medinah Ameerul-Momineen, Third Caliph (Khalifah)
580 Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of Prophet Muhamma (pbuh).
582 Umar ibn al-Khattab 41 BH/582 Makkah born, Second Caliph (Khalifah), Title “Ameerul-Momineen” died 24 AH/7 November 644 (Sunday) Medinah
582 Muhammad (pbuh) and Abu Talib journey to Syria and meet with Bahira, a Christian monk. Bahira notices certain peculiarities about the Prophet, which compels him to inquire further and have him find the “mark of prophets,” a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths.
586 Muhammad (pbuh) participates in the war of Fijar (did not fight physically).
591 Muhammad (pbuh) becomes an active member of “Hilful Fudul”, a league for the relief of the distressed.
594 Muhammad (pbuh) becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.
595 Muhammad (pbuh) Marriage to Khadijah – At the age of 25 Muhammad (pbuh) marries his wealthy twice-divorced distant cousin, Khadijah, who later becomes his first follower. She had already borne two sons and a daughter from her previous marriages
595 Muhammad’s (pbuh) Second journey to Syra.
598 Muhammad’s (pbuh) son, Qasim, is born.
600 Muhammad’s (pbuh) daughter, Zainab, is born.
600 Ali ibn Abi-Talib (1)13 Rajab 23BH/ 600 Makkah21 Ramadhan 40AH28 January 661 (Thur) he was born in the Kaaba, in the city of Makkah. The cousin of Muhammad (pbuh) and his son in law.
603 Muhammad’s (pbuh) daughter, Um-e-Kalthum, is born.
604 Muhammad’s daughter, Ruqayya, is born.
605 The outer wall of the Kabaa took fire. Muhammad (pbuh) arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
605 24 July— Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad (pbuh). She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad’s descendants are through her.
610 9 February According to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad (pbuh) is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Makkah. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet. Khadija is the first to accept Islam. Later, Muhammad (pbuh) is told to call his people to the worship of the one God, but they react with hostility and begin to persecute him and his followers. The year Muslims cite as the beginning of Muhammad’s mission and revelation of the Quran. – Ali, Abu Bakr, Zaid ibn Harithah embrace Islam
610 Arab tribes defeated an Arab-Persian army at Dhu Qar in Iraq.
611 Arabs invade Mesopotamia.
611 Mo’awiah ibn Abi-Sufian born 12 BH/611 Makkah. d. 60 AH/680 Dimashq. 6th Khalifah (Brother-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
611 -626 Sassanid armies capture Jerusalem and over run Asia Minor.
613 War between Romans and Persian forces, Romans defeated in Basra. Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.
613 Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins the public preaching of Islam. This causes confrontation with the tribe of the Quraish. For the first time, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins to preach Islam publicly in Makkah. His preaching is met with skepticism, and he is accused of plagiarizing the “tales of the ancients”. One of his most sternest of critics is his own uncle, Abu Lahab, who is cursed by name in the Qur’an. The Makkahns ask for miracles, but Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) gives them none.
614 Persians sack Jerusalem damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.
615 Friction with the Quraysh of Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) attacks on the native pagan beliefs causes friction between his followers and the Quraysh. Muhammad (pbuh) allows Muslims to leave Arabia. First Muslim migration to Ethiopia; 80 Muslims migrate to Abyssinia to escape persecution from the Makkans. The king of Abyssinia, Negus, treats them well and later accepts Islam, himself.
615 Conversion of Omar ibn al Khattab (r) and Hamza (r).
616 Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Seclusion. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his converts feel persecution. Second Hijrah to Abysinnia
617 Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
619 The Satanic verses incident Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) finally acknowledges Allat, Manat, and al-Uzza, the goddesses of the pagan Makkahns in a revelation. Upon hearing this, the Makkans are overjoyed. Later, following an alleged visit from the angel Jibreel, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) recants and claims they were the words of Satan
619 Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Marries Sau’da
620 Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) goes to Ta’if (a town near Makkah) to seek protection and followers; he does not succeed..
620 miraclous Night Journey to heaven – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) reports that he had been carried to Jerusalem and then to Paradise on a mythological flying steed named Buraq, and has met the other prophets. Over the sixth heaven, he meets Moses who weeps because there would be more Muslims in heaven than Jews. Five daily prayers awarded by God for Muslims.
620 22 Members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes of Yathrib (Medina) converted to Islam and negotiated with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) with the aim of making him leader of their strife-ridden tribal community. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) invited to lead Arabs in Medina.
621 The first pledge Covenant of Aqabah with twelve men from the tribes of Khazraj and Aws of Yathrib (Medina). They convert to Islam.
621 Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Makkah and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad’s clan, the Hashim.
622 March- Second pledge at Aqaba. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib (now Madinat al-Nabi, “the city of the Prophet,” or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. About 75 converts from Medina took the Pledge professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad (pbuh) from all danger. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.
622 Apr. – Muslims flight began to Medina, with in two months about 150 emigrants had reached Madinah. The Quaraishs resist the new religion. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his small band of followers migrate to the town of Yathrib in the north, which is open to his new faith. The Hijrah of 622, the migration, marks the beginning of the Muslim era. After making himself ruler, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) changes the name of the town to Medina (“city of the Prophet”), and Medina becomes the seat of the caliphate. This marks year one of the Islamic calendar and the establishment of the Islamic ummah, the community of believers.This tradition is based on the hadiths, Sunnah, and has no proof from the time he lived.
622 July – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by the Makkans.
622 12th September. The Quraish convened the Makkan parliament at Daral-Nadwa on Thursday the 26th Safar under Abu Jehal.
622 September 16 – Migration to Madinah Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) and Abu Bakr started the journey towards Madinah
622 Sept. 24, Hijra of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from Makkah to Medina; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and approximately 75 to 200 followers arrived in Madina, beginning of the Islamic era. Sept. 24, 622.
622 Oct. – The building of a domed mosque in Quba’ then another in Medina; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) consummates his marriage to Aisha, his nine-year-old bride.; Sawda’s emigration to Medina; Birth of ‘Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair; Hamzah’s victory;‘Ubaidah ibn al-arith’ victory; The military expedition to Bu’ath; Death of Abu Umamah; Death of Kulthum ibn Hadm; Al-Walud ibn al-Mughirah perishes; Al-’a ibn Wa’il perishes.
623 The Patrol of Buwat took place in October 623 or 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar, in the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal. Muhammad went with a force of 200 men in order to raid parties of the Quraysh. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) stayed at Buwat for some time and left without engaging in combat.
623 January— Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.
623 The Second Year (2 A.H.623 A.D.) Military expeditions to al-Abwa’ a village belonging to Rabigh, western coast of Saudi Arabia; al-’Ashira; Through Ali’s military exploit, Medina’s grazing area is regained; Mission of Sa’d ibn Abu Waqqa;‘Abdullah ibn Jash’s raid; Change of the qibla (direction of prayer toward Makkah instead of Jerusalem); Introduction of zakatul-fir (the special mandatory charity tax paid at the end of the fasting month of Ramaan); Introduction of alatul-’ud; The battle with the Qainuqa’ tribe; Battle of al-Kadr; Battle of As-Suwaiq.
623 Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) adopts the legitimized Bedouin practice of raiding and takes to ambushing caravans – Battle of Dul-‘Ashir. The Patrol of Dhu Al-Ushairah occurred in the year 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar between the months of Jumādi al-Ūlā and Jumādi al-Ākhirah (November–December, 623 CE).This was the 6th caravan expedition and the 3rd ‘Ghazwah’ (in which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself was the commander) occurring about 2 months after the Invasion of Buwāṭ.
624 Fasting introduce as a second pillar of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begin raids on caravans to fund the movement. Attacks are made upon Bani Salim, Sawiq, Ghatfan, and Bahran.
624 The Nakhla raid – It took place in January 624 AD (Rajab 2 A.H.) Muhammad despatched ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh Asadi to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Makkah, at the head of eight Emigrants with six camels.[the 7th Caravan Raid against the pagan Makkans,
624 March 15, Battle of Badr, first victory of Muslims over Makkans, which was seen to be a sign of the truth of Islam, Muhammad (pbuh) instituted the Fast of Ramadan (the month in which both the Battle and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s Call to Prophethood had taken place). Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s chief rival in Makkah, Abu Jahl, was executed.
624 Apr.- Exile of the Jewish Bani Qaynuqa Breaking an earlier treaty, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims besiege the Jewish Qaynuqa tribe. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) initially intends to execute all the males, but following an emotional plea from Abdullah bin Ubayy, he confiscates their property and exiles them from Medina.
625 The Battle of Uhud The second military encounter between the Makkans (led by Abu Sufyan) and the Muslims. Due to the Muslim focus on salvaging booty rather than victory, this time the pagan Makkans defeat the Muslims of Medina, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself is hurt by an attack from Khalid ibn al-Walid. Battle of Uhud. In the battle 41 companions of prophet martyred including Amir Hamzah. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna
625 Attacks made at Humra-ul-Asad and Dhatur-Riqa.
625 The Muslim siege of the Jewish Banu Nadir tribe lasts for two weeks, after which they surrender. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) confiscates their weapons and exiles them from Medina.
625 Persia attacks Constantinople, but unable to breach the walls.
625 Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins dictation of the Koran.
626 Husain ibn Ali (3)3 Sha’ban 4 AH8 Jan 626 (Wednesday) Medinah10 Muharram 61 AH9 Oct 680 (Tue) Karbala, Iraq Shaheed-e-Karbala, Second son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
626 Attacks at Badru-Ukhra, and Banu Mustalaqq Nikah.
626 Emperor Heraclius I of Byzantium expels drives out Persians from Egypt.
626 Expedition to Dumat al-Jandal against tribes in the Syrian border area.
627 Subjugation of the Bani Kalb at Dumat al-Jandal. Additional battles fought at Ahzab, Bani Lahyan, Ghaiba, and Khaibar.
627 A confederation was created between Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s followers in Makkah and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.
627 March- Makkan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 – c. 655) laid siege to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was unsuccessful for the 15 days. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Makkans and he expelled Banu Quraiza Jews and two great Bedouin tribes allied with Makkans
627 Heraclius and his armies win the battle of Ninevah, defeating the Persians.
628 Poisoned at Khaybar Immediately following the conquest of Khaybar, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his men are served a meal of poisoned lamb by a Jewish woman named Zaynab bint al-Harith, causing him to fall ill. Muhammad (pbuh) questions her, and then has her executed.
628 The conquest of Khaybar Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims besiege the Khaybar oasis. The combatants killed, and the women and children allotted as booty. The Jewish leader, Kinana, is tortured and beheaded, and his young widow, Safiyah, is taken by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) for himself.
628 The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sends messages to Khusro of Persia, Khusro Parviz, he torn the letter. Heraclius of Byzantium, Muqawqis of Egypt and the king of Yemen, inviting them to accept Islam.
628 Yemen converts to Islam
628 Mar. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Makkah where their passage was blocked by citizens of Makkah. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.
628 Chosroe Parvez was assassinated and succeeded by his son Sheroe in 628
629 the first Muslim attack at Christian territory at the battle of Mauta in September 629 AD.29 Sep. The Battle of Mu’tah in where Zayd was killed. Byzantine victory over Muslim army at Mutah. Heraclius recovers Jerusalem.
629 The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performs the pilgrimage at Makkah.
630 Oct.- The Expedition to Tabouk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, AH 8.
630 On 6th Shawal, 8January 27, 630, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) marched to Hunain to crush the powers of the four savage tribes, viz. Thaqif, Hawazin, Sa’d and Jasam The Muslims prevail in the Battle of Hunayn against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and conquer Ta’if. In doing so, they capture huge spoils, consisting of 6,000 women and children and 24,000 camels. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is now the ruler of Arabia.
630 11 January— Eighteen months after signing the agreed upon ceasefire, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) marshals his forces outside Makkah. During the Holy Truce months he surprise attacks and conquers Quarish forces. His violation of the peace treaty is celebrated as the first “hudna“. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) conquers Makkah, He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba
630 Two years before Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s death of a fever, he launches the Tabuk Expedition, in which he led 30,000 jihadists against the Byzantine Christians. He had heard a report that a huge army had amassed to attack Arabia, but the report turned out to be a false rumor. The Byzantine army never materialized.
631 All Arabians tribes including tribe of Thaqif submit to Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sends (the now converted) Khalid ibin al-Walid and other warriors to the remaining non-Muslim Arabian tribes, inviting them to accept Islam.
631 Year of Deputations.
631 The Tabuk raid – The expedition to Tabuk marked the first real act of aggression by the Muslims against Christians. Two thirds of the Christian world would be conquered before the much belated and weak response of the crusades. By the time Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) arrives at Tabuk, the Byzantine troops have already withdrawn. However, the local Christian leaders are forced to pay Jizyah and submit to Islamic rule.
632 6 March The Farewell pilgrimage The last verse of the Qur’an is revealed. After completion of the pilgrimage, Muhammad (pbuh) delivers his famous sermon which leads to the commencement of the conquests against the Christians and Zoroastrians.
632 JUN 8. Monday. Death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Abu-Bakr, Mohammed’s father-in-law becomes caliph (deputy of the Prophet). With Umar, he devises a system whereby Islam enforces religious and political fealty. Military conquest of Middle East begins . Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.]
632 The Shiites, or Partisans of Ali, claim that Ali should succeed Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) based on blood relation, but the council of the elderly (Sunnites) chooses instead Abu Bakr
632 -33 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam; Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.
632 Usamah leads expedition to Syria.
632 Dec. – Death of Fatimat az Zahra (r), beloved daughter of the Prophet, wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib (r).
632 -661 CE – Period of the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
632-634 Under the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, A.H. 11–13 A.D. 632–634 the Muslim army reconquer and sometimes conquer for the first time the polytheists of Arabia. These Arab polytheists had to convert to Islam or die. They did not have the choice of remaining in their faith and paying a tax.
633 The Koran’s early textual versions recorded. .
633 The Muslim army led by Khalid al-Walid, a superior military commander, whom Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) nicknamed the Sword of Allah for his ferocity in battle, conquer the city of Ullays, Mesopotamia along the Euphrates River (in today’s Iraq).
633 – Battle of Al-Anbar was between the Muslim Arab army under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid and the Sasanian Empire. The battle took place at Anbar which is located approximately 80 miles from the ancient city of Babylon. Additional attacks at Oman, Hadramaut, Kazima, Walaja, Ulleis, and
633 -42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires
633 Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battle of Chains, Battle of Saniyy, Battle of Walaja, Battle of Hira, Battle of Al-Anbar, Battle of Ayn al-Tamr, Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, Battle of Firaz.
633 Abu Bakr (r) conducts campaigns against eastern Arabs to ensure their compliance with zakat. Rise of the false prophets. Battle of Yamama against Musailimah al Kazzab. Abu Bakr (r) authorizes the preparation of a written copy of the Qur’an, the Mashaf e Siddiqi.
633 The Koran’s early textual versions recorded. Canonical versions will appear circa 651-52.
634 Abu Bakr calls for a war against infidels.
634 Additional attacks on Basra, Damascus, Ajnadin, Namaraq, and Saqatia. Around 4,000 Jewish, Christian, and Samaritan peasants are executed from Gaza to Cesarea. Muslim chronicler Baladhuri would later record in the ninth century that 40,000 Jews had successfully been destroyed in Cesarea by his day.
634 At the Battle of Yarmuk in Syria the Muslim defeat the Byzantines.
634 22 August— Death of Abu Bakr, the first caliph of Islam. Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-44 ) assumes power as the second caliph.(.H. 13–23 A.D. 634–644) The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands,
634 Muslim armies defeat the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadyn. Abu Bakr (r) passes away. Omar ibn al Khattab (r) is elected the Caliph.
634-644 The Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, who is regarded as particularly brutal.
635 -650 Conquest of Syria, Palestine, the Persian Empire, Egypt and parts of North Africa, West Africa and Spain. A bloodbath followed in the wake of Islamic victories around the Mediterranean Sea. Countless large Christian and Jewish communities destroyed, and the land promised to God’s people in Old Testament days was wrenched from them.
635 Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.
635 Khalid ibn Walid, an Islamic general, defeats the Byzantines in Marj al-Suffar near Damascus.
635 Muslims begin conquest of Syria and Persia. Syria will fall in 641 and Persia in 642.
635 Campaigns against eastern Roman and Persian Empires. The Muslims capture Damascus.
635-650 Conquest of Syria, Palestine, the Persian Empire, Egypt and parts of North Africa, West Africa and Spain. A bloodbath followed in the wake of Islamic victories around the Mediterranean Sea. Countless large Christian and Jewish communities destroyed, and the land promised to God’s people in Old Testament days was wrenched from them.
636 August 20, 636 – . Battle of Yarmouk, also called the Battle of Yarmuk, (20 August 636). After the devastating blow to the Sassanid Persians at Firaz, the Muslim Arab forces, under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid, took on the army of the Christian Byzantine Empire at Yarmouk near the border of modern-day Syria and Jordan. The major battle was to continue for six days.
637 The Arabs under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon (Madain).. Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty and start of Islamic rule. By 651, the entire Persian realm is under the rule of Islam as it continues its westward expansion.
638 Muslims enter the area north of Arabia, known as “Sham,” including Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq.
638 The Muslims defeat the Romans and enter Jerusalem.Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem. The Romans are defeated at the Battle of Yarmouk and the Muslims enter Palestine. Before entering Jerusalem, Caliph Umar forms a covenant with the Jews, pledging protection of their religious freedom. Freedom of worship is guaranteed to Christians. Judicial rulings of Omar ibn al Khattab (r) and Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) provide a basis for the sciences of Fiqh. Battle of Jalula.The Muslims continue their conquest of Syria, Lebanon and Iraq, which is completed in 641 CE.
638 Council of Jabiya (Syria) ‘Umar confers with the Prophet’s companions on the division and organisation of the domains acquired in the conquests; thereafter the setting up of the Diwan (army lists) that become the basis of pensions around 640.
638 -650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.
639 – Conquest of Khuizistan Syria, the Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium
639 Thousands die from starvation in and around Constantinople due to ravaged and burned fields by Islamic raiders.
639 -42 Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.
639 Plague of Emmaus.
640 Battle of Babylon in Egypt. The armies of Amr Ibn al-‘As conquer Egypt and found the city of al-Fustat.
640 -42 Conquest of Persia
640 Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Conquest of Syria completed. These alliances formed between Muslims, Christians, and Jews were based on liberation, rather than subjugation, of conquered peoples. Egypt, Persia and the Fertile Crescent came under the rules of four “Righteous Caliphs” until 662.
641 Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.
641 Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.
641 Arab armies advance towards Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sindh.
641 Conquest of Mosul (upper Mesopotamia) \
641 The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors. Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.
642 Battle of Rayy in Persia.
642 Campaign to Barqa (Tripolitania, 642-43)
642 Oldest extant manuscript in Arabic (with disambiguation dots)
642 the Arabs destroy the library of Alexandria and found the first mosque in Africa, Amr Ebn El Aas Mosque (the site of future Cairo)
642 Muslim rule of Mesopotamia and parts of Persia. The Battle of Nahāvand (also Nihāvand or Nahāwand) was fought in 642 between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies. The battle is known to Muslims as the “Victory of Victories.” The Sassanid King Yazdegerd III escaped to the Merv area, but was unable to raise another substantial army. It was a decisive victory for the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persians consequently lost the surrounding cities including Sephahan (renamed Isfahan).
642 The conquest of Egypt is completed. Caliph Omar streamlines the administration of the vast empire.
643 Campaigns to the coast of Makran and southeast Iran.
643 Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia)
643 First construction of the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
643 -707 Muslim conquer North Africa.
644 5 November— Assassiation of Umar, second caliph of Islam by a Persian prisoner of war; Uthman ibn Affan (23–35 A.D. 644–656) is elected third Caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.
644 Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad’s prophesies. Rallies arise to support Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.
644 -650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.
645 Byzantine forces recapture Alexandria from the Arabs and local inhabitants rise up to support the Byzantine forces.
645 Campaigns in Fats.
646 Arabs recapture Alexandria
646 Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
647 Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.
649 Beginning of war at sea against Byzantium and the conquest of Cyprus. Muawiya I ibn Abu Sufyan, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.
650 Pronunciation of Qur’anic verses standardized. The final text of the Quran is established.
650 -732 Expansion into Eastern Turkey, India and China.
651 Eastern Persia is conquered.
651 Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
651 -52 Canonical versions of the Koran finalized
652 Arabs introduce the region to Islam, a religion that will eventually become dominant.
652 Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Caliph Uthman bin Affan
652 Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).
652 Death of Abu Dhar al Ghifari, venerated Companion and Sufi.
653 Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.
654 Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.
655 Islam begins to spread throughout North Africa.
655 Naval Battle of the Masts – In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.
656 June – Martyrdom of Uthman bin Affan by dissenters from his army. ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib A.H. 35–40 A.D. 656–661 Ali is finally appointed caliph, a role he reluctantly accepts – becoming the fourth so-called Rightly Guided Caliph. For Shias, however, he holds the title of Imam, or leader the first of 12 Imams believed by “Twelver” Shias to be the true successors of Muhammad.
656 10 December— Battle of the Camel. Beginning of the Civil Wars. Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats dissidents under Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r) at the Battle of the Camel in which Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, leads a rebellion against Ali for not avenging Uthman’s assination. Ali’s partisans win.
657 Ali moves the capital from Makkah to Kufa, situated in modern-day Iraq. Muawiya, an Umayyad brother-in-law of Muhammad’s, and a cousin of Othman’s, confronts Ali for rule of the caliphate but is defeated at the Battle of Siffin. Unable to overcome Ali in battle, he instead manoeuvres him into accepting arbitration at Daumaut ul Jandal, arbitration goes against Ali.
657 13th of Safar 37 A.H. (~30 July 657 C.E.) During The Battle of Nahrawan was a battle between Ali ibn Abi Talib (the fourth Sunni Caliph and the 1st Shi’a Imam) and the Kharijites, near Nahrawan, twelve miles from Baghdad.
658 17 July 658 Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan.
658 ‘Adruh arbitrates between ‘Ali and Mu’awiya, and refuses to pronounce ‘Ali legitimate caliph. Muawiya is declared the Caliph by his supporters in Damascus.
659 Ali Zainul-Abideen (4)5 Sha’ban 38 AH5 Jan 659 (Saturday) Medinah25 Muharram 95 AH20 Oct 713 (Friday) Medinah Son of Imam Husain]
659 Truce between Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) and Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan. Beginning of the Kharijite schism.
659 Conquest of Egypt by Mu’awiyah.
660 Muawiyah declares himself caliph in Damascus.
661 28 January- assassination of Ali ibn Abi-Taalib by an extremist; born 599, 13 Rajab 23BH599 Makkah died 21 Ramadhan 40AH28 January 661 (Thur) Ali’s supporters acclaim his son Hasan as next Caliph, but he comes to an agreement with Muawiyyah I and retires to Medina.
661 January29 — Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Caliph, is assassinated by Kharijites, buried in Najaf, Iraq. bringing to an end the rule of the four “righteous caliphs” Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad rule. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu’awiyah becomes the sole Caliph and rules until 680. Muawiya is the first member of the Omayyad Dynasty, which will last until 750. Imam Hassan ibn Ali retires from politics
661 -680 the Caliphate of Muawiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan, a kinsman of the caliph Uthman, and the first great caliph of the dynasty. He founds Umayyid dynasty (A.H. 41–132 A.D. 661–750) and moves capital from Medina to Damascus Damascus becomes the new capital. Mu’awiya’s caliphate begins the second major period of expansion and creates an army of paid mercenaries
662 Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile Crescent and Persia yielded to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, whose rule lasted until 1258 and 820, respectively.
662 Khawarij revolts. The Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad. It broke into revolt against the authority of the Caliph Ali after he agreed to arbitration with his rival, Muawiyah I, to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657). A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years, the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate.
662 -75 Ziyad ibn Abihi became governor of Iraq (Basra) and Sasanian provinces.
662 Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile
664 the Arabs conquer Afghanistan
665 Muawiya orders the buildup of a navy.
667 Muslim armies capture Khorasan.
667 The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threatening Constantinope. Sicily is attacked by Muslims sailing from Tunisia.
668 First Siege of Constantinople This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs Greek Fire. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah has to send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.
669 The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be open to the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 800.
670 Beginning of operations against the Berbers and of the conquest of North Africa by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi’, he founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
671 Muslim armies under Mauwiya I capture the island of Rhodes.The first attempt to capture Constantinople fails.
672 Beginning of the ‘seven year’ Arab siege of Constantinople.
672 Campaigns in Khurasan.
673 Arabs begin siege of Constantinople, which continues until 678.
674 The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
674 Arab conquest reaches the Indus River.
674 the Arabs attack Byzantium
674 Arab conquest continues eastward until it reaches the river Indus in modern Pakistan.
676 August 23, 676 Birth of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium, as the illegitimate son of Pippin II. Serving as Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles would lead a force of Christians that turn back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, would effectively halt the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.
677 Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.
677 Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz.
678 Death of Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r), wife of Prophet Muhammed (p) and the source of a large number of Hadith.
679 the Arabs are defeated from Byzantium
680 60 A.H Uqbah bin Nafi, marches west and claims Africa for Islam.
680 28 April Caliph Mu’awiyah dies. His son Yazid succeeds him as Caliph. A struggle with Ali’s other son, Hussein, results in the death and mutilation of the latter in a battle at Karbala (in the south of present-day Iraq). This martyrdom of Hussein becomes a pivotal event for the Shi’a sect of Islam, and is commemorated annually by Shi’a Muslims all over the world as a day of mourning called Ashura . For the Shi’a, Hussein’s rebellion was the action of a brave man defying injustice and tyranny. Civil war among the Muslims
680 10 October— Battle of Karbala and Husayn bin Ali is killed along with his companions. Ali ibn Husayn becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib‘s followers. Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.
681 Uqba Ibn Nafi leads an army into the Maghreb, and arriving at the Atlantic Ocean. The invasion is partially reversed by a Amazigh (Berber) chieftan Kahena.
683 Yazid sacks Madina. Uqba bin Nafi conquers North Africa.
683 The Harra Incident started on a Wednesday, Thul-Hijja 28, 63 A.H.August 31, 683 A.D. and was led by Abdullah ibn az-Zubair, a cousin of the Prophet of Islam and declares himself as the Caliph at Makkah.
684 June— Muawiya II abdicated. Marwan I (A.H. 64–65 A.D. 684–685) becomes the Caliph’ at Damascus.
684 Battle of Marj Rahat.
685 Death of Marwan I – Reign of Abd al-Malik. (A.H. 65–86 A.D. 685–705) the second great Umayyad caliph becomes caliph and introduces administrative reforms (Arabic language as the official language, the minting of new coins with Islamic verses, Construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Muslim armies advance into Central Asia. Christian farmers of the Negev and Samaria are driven out. Pillaged and abandoned, the farms go desolate.
685 January – Battle of ‘Ayn al-Warda. was fought in early January 685 between the Umayyad army and the Penitents (Tawwabun), a group of pro-Alid Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad al-Khuza’i, a companion of Muhammad, who wished to atone for their failure to assist Imam Husayn ibn Ali in his uprising against the Umayyads, in which he was killed at the Battle of Karbala in 680.
685 -87 Religious and socially motivated uprising of the Shi’a under Mukhtar in Iraq in the name of the ‘Alid Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya.
686 Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
687 Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.
688 Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.
690 Omayyad armies reach the Atlantic Ocean.
691 Birth of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces would make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.
691 Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, the brother of the pretender ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr and his governor in Iraq, murdered. ‘Abd al-Malik conquers Iraq.
691 Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.
691 The Battle of Maskin also known as Battle of Dayr al-Jathaliq from a near by Nestorian monastery, was a decisive battle of the Second Islamic Civil War (680s-690s), fought near Baghdad on the western bank of the river Tigris between the army of the Umayyads under Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and the forces of Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, governor of Iraq for his brother, the Makkan anti-Caliph Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr. Kufa falls to Abd al-Malik.
692 October— Capture of Makkah by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. End of the anti-caliphate of ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr (shiite). Death of ibn Zubayr. Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph.
692 Abdul Malik mints the first coins of the Islamic state.
692 The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.
692 October— Capture of Makkah by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. End of the anti-caliphate of ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr.
693 Al Hajjaj, becomes governor of Iraq.
694 Construction of the Omayyad Mosque in Damascus.
695 Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The’ Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
695 the Arabs build the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (with the first inscription from the Koran)
696 Arabic becomes the official language of the Islamic world
697 the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in favor of the Arabic script
698 78 A.H Byzantines flee from Carthage and Muslims get full power on the Berber Country
698 CE, 78 A.H Byzantines flee from Carthage and Muslims get full power on the Berber Country.
698 Muslims capture Carthage in North Africa.
699 Abu-Hanifa 80 AH/699 Kufah, Iraq d. 150 AH/767 Baghdad, Iraq, Taabai, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Baqir & Imam Ja’far Sadiq
699 Death of Al Juhani, rationalist, philosopher