20th Century

 

1900               Britain supplies almost 50% of Egypt’s imports and buys almost 80% of Egypt’s exports

1900               -1906 Bosnian Muslims settle in Chicago

1901               Foreigners own 25% of the large estates in Egypt

1901               French forces occupy Morocco.

1901                 Abdur Rahman died and his son Habibullah succeeded him.

1902             Ibn Saud left Kuwait with 40 loyal followers, vowing not to return until he had capture Riyadh or died in the attempt. He was about 22 years old.(9 January)

1902               Abdul al­Aziz ibn Saud, at the head of a bedouin army, Battle of Dikim conquers Riyadh and begins to unite south of Arabia (both through military action and marriage with 20 women) under the puritanical Wahabi Islamic order (5 Shawwal 1322)(15 January)

1902               Birth of Ruhollah Khomeini, The leader of Islamic revolution and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran.

1902               British Egypt inaugurates the lower Aswan dam

1903               Birth of Syed Abul Ala Maududi(Founder of  Jamaat-e-Islami).

1903               So-called “Ilinden” uprising in Macedonia ends in defeat, as Serbs, Greeks and outside powers hold aloof. Ottomans remain in control of Macedonia.

1904               Death of R.A. Kartini, later heralded as a pioneer in the Indonesian women’s movement.

1904               Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.

1904              Yahya ibn Muhammad becomes the new Zaydi imam in North Yemen under Ottoman occupation.

1904               -1908 —  violent clashes between Sunni and Shia in South Asia, particularly the Uttar Pradesh area of the Indian sub-continent.

1904               Morocco becomes a French protectorate under theAlgeciras Conference.

1904               The Presian constitution is promoted.

1905          Bengal is partitioned; boycott of foreign cloth; swadeshi movement

1905               The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt.

1905               the Constitutional Movement (al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya), which took place in Iran in 1323/1905 under the leadership of the fu q a h a ’ of al-Najaf. Although it began in Iran, the Constitutional Movement quickly extended to Iraq and involved third powers, with effects across the Islamic world…

1905               Hassan-Al-Banna was born in Alexandria(Egypt),The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt.

1906               Albanians begin joining the Committee of Union and Progress(Young Turks), which formed in Constantinople, hoping to gain autonomy for their nation within the Ottoman Empire.

1906               Uprising of merchants and clergy leads Shah Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar to relent to demands for reform, which lead to the Constitution of 1906, providing for a limited male franchise and a National Consultative Assembly which convened that year.

1906               Founding in Singapore of al-Imam, a Malay-language journal publishing articles on religious reform and drawing heavily on Egyptian “modernist” scholarship.

1906               In retaliation for British police brutality in Dinshaway, Muhammad Abduh, Ali Yusuf and Mustafa Kamil found Egyptian nationalist parties

1906                — British soldiers in the Delta town of Denshawai, trying to use domesticated pigeons for target practice, are attacked by villagers defending their property. Although no one is harmed in the attack, one of the British soldiers later dies of heatstroke, and four of the villagers are executed for murder, two are imprisoned for life, and many others are flogged in public. The Denshawai Incident, as it becomes known, becomes the spark that ignites widespread Egyptian opposition to the European presence in Egypt

1906               All India Muslim League was established in Dhakka (Bengal)

1907              France invades southern Morocco

1907               Muzaffar al-Din died in 1325/1907 Iran

1907               The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.

1907           Russia and Great Britain signed the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan was declared outside Russia’s sphere of influence.

1907               Introduction of constitution which limits the absolutist powers of rulers.

1907               Tigris river bridge was completely destroyed by the flood of the Tigris. It was the first bridge built in Samarra al-Shirazi

1908               In Morocco, following popular unrest, the brother of Sultan Abdul Aziz, Mulai Hafid, rebels and is proclaim Sultan of Fez.(6 January)

1908               Cairo University is founded as a private university 1909 British companies begin extracting oil in Iran

1908               The Ottomans inaugurate a railway to Medina

1908               Britain installs an unpopular prime minister in Egypt

1908             Albanian intellectuals met in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.

 

1908               Constitutional monarchy (2.phase) in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

1908               Inception of Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya. Hazrat Al-Hajj Maulana Hafiz Hakim Noor-ud-Din elected 1st Caliph.

1908               The Comittee of Union and Progress (The Young Turks) is formed.

1908               -18 Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic “Young Turks.” More liberal policies develop.

1908               Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, humiliating Serbia. Montenegro’s prince declares himself a king and Bulgaria’s king declares himself a tsar..

1908               Shah Muhammad Ali declared martial law    in Iran 1326

1909                Iran, 1909 British companies begin extracting oil in Iran

1909               Bakhtiyari tribes took control of Teheran and deposed Muhammad Ali, who fled to the Russian embassy and proclaimed his son Ahmad, who was twelve years old, his successor.

1909               “Hind Swaraj”A young Gujarati lawyer based in South Africa articulates his vision of an ideal society of loosely linked self-sufficient village republics

1909               Morley-MintoThe Morley-Minto Reforms initiate communal representation in legislatures

1909               -1910:Anti-Ottoman revolts sweep northern Albania and Kosovo, but rebels’ failure to coordinate or gain support of outside powers allows Ottomans to retain control.

1909               April 27;   the Turkish members of the Dusturl movement removed Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid and replaced him with Sultan Muhammad Rashad.

1910               Inayat Khan travels from India to America. He establishes the Sufi Order in the West and is one of the first Muslims to teach Sufism in the U.S.

1910             Aug 26; Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (d.1997), later known as Mother Teresa and care-taker of the poor in Calcutta, was born to an ethnic Albanian family in Uskub (later Skopje, Macedonia). In 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and in 1979 was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her work.

1910               Abdul Aziz of Arabia conquers Hudia. Saudi Arabia.(10 January)

1911               Young Arab nationalists found “Al Fatah” in Paris

1911               British forces occupy southern Iran to protect the oil fields

1911               War of Tripolli between Ottoman Empire and ItalyTreaty of Ouchy (1912).

1911               Congress and Muslim League leaders held a conference to work for Hindu-Muslim unity.(10 January)

1911               ‘Comrade’ a weekly journal published by Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar.(10 January)

1911               The first bomb ever dropped from an airplane is dropped by Italy over Libya in the war against the Ottoman Empire, during which half the population of Libya is either killed or exiled by 1918

1911               Young Arab nationalists found “Al Fatah” in Paris

1911               -24– Khilafat Movement – Just back from South Africa, Gandhi joins with Indian Muslim leaders to call for support of the Ottoman Caliph against European pressure; the movement ends when Ataturk abolishes the Caliphate in 1924

1911               Viceroy’s darbar”Three boons” Bengal partition undone; capital moved to Delhi; Calcutta made Presidency capital

1911               Oct, Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), Afghan intellectual, began publishing the Seraj-al-Akhbar newspaper. The bi-weekly continued to January 1919

1911               -12 – Italy seizes Libya from the Ottomans. Omar al-Mukhtar begins 20-year insurgency against Italian rule.

1912            December. Ambassadorial conference opens in London and discusses Albania’s fate.

1912            May; Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).

1912               Balkan wars. The coalition of four Balkan countries defeat Ottoman Empire (Turkey).

1912               K.H. Ahmad Dahlan establishes the modernist welfare organization Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta.

1912               The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.

1912             Dec, Ambassadorial conference opened in London and discussed Albania’s fate.

1912             Dec 25; Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.

1912             Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later.  (Albania))

1912             Nov 28, Albanian delegates at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a provisional government. This marked Albania’s Independence Day. (Albania,)

1912             Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League– Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro–and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]

1912               European powers awarded Kosovo to Serbia rather than the new Republic of Albania.

1912               Sarekat Islam cooperative founded in Indonesia, part of the Muhammadiyah reform movement.

1912               The Turkish Petroleum Company (later Iraq Petroleum Company) is formed by Germany, Holland and Britain to exploit the Ottoman oil fields of Mosul

1912                Treaty of Fez makes Morocco a French and Spanish protectorate, triggering the Fez riots.

1912               -1913:Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece unite and declare war on Ottomans, overrunning “Turkey-in-Europe”, but then fighting with each other over the spoils

1913               November. Treaty of Bucharest ends Second Balkan War. Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian state. Demographics are ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) are divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.

1913              British Egypt is allowed to elect a parliament with the nationalist Saad Zaghlul leading the antiBritish party See the timeline for World War I

1913               The Second Balkan War

1913              May. Treaty of London ends First Balkan War, Second Balkan War begins

1913             Sep 23, Serbian troops marched into Albania.

1913             Feb 26-1913 Mar 6, An Albanian Congress was held in Trieste as the Ottoman Empire broke down. Ismail Qemali served as head of the provisional government of the newly founded Albanian state.  (Albania)

1913             May 30, Conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and the Second Balkan War began.  (Albania,)

1913             May 30, New country of Albania formed.  (Albania)

1913             Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.

1913             Jul 30, Conclusion of 2nd Balkan War.

1913               Britain and the Ottoman government sign a treaty recognising the independence of Bahrain but the country remains under British administration.

1913                Putsch by the Committee of Union and Progress (“CUP”) faction of the Young Turks, known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte, results in resignation of Grand Vizier. In control of the government, CUP withdraws from the London Peace Conference and moves the empire close to Germany in the approach to war.

1913               London Peace conference between Turkey and Balkan states suspended, because of the refusal of the Turks to give up Adrianople, the Aegean Islands and Crete(6 January)

1913               Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League.

1913               Woking Muslim Mission opened byLahore Ahmadiyya Movementfor the Propagation of Islam.

1913               The Moorish Science Temple of America is organized by Nobel Drew Ali in Newark, N.J. Ali preaches black nationalism and uses Islam as unifier of African Americans, although the religion was created with beliefs drawn from other major religions.

1914             September New Albanian state collapses following outbreak of World War I; Prince Wilhelm is stripped of authority and departs from Albania.

1914               Egypt becomes a British protectorate

1914               In the First World War, the Turks used the school founded by Mirza Muhammad Hasan al-Shirazi in Samarra’ as a medical centre for the treatment of the wounded who fell during the war with the British.

1914               The Ottoman Empire enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.

1914               There are 85 thousand Jews in Ottoman Palestine

1914             Mar 6, German Prince Wilhelm de Wied was crowned as King of Albania. He was installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.

1914               Mohammad Zahir Shah, later king, was born. He was crowned at age 19, ousted in 1963 and deposed in 1973.

1914               World War One breaks out. When Khedive Abbas tries to encourage the Egyptian population to support the Ottomans (who are allied with the Germans against the British and French), he is deposed in favor of his uncle, Hussein Kamil, and Egypt is officially annexed by Britain. Many of the Egyptian nationalists are sent into exile in Malta for the duration of the war.

1914               Death of Ahmed Hilmi

1914               November 22 the British occupation of al-Basra. Arab Shii leaders toned down their grievances against the Ottomans and issued fatwas supporting the Turks

1914               Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed. World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany.

1914               -1918 – Iran declares neutrality but is scene of heavy fighting during World War I.

1914               Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.

1914               -1922Arab Muslims arrive in Detroit; they settle in the city and its surrounding areas.

1915               A famine kills 500,000 people in Ottoman Syria between 1915 and 1918

1915               Britain recognizes the kingdom of the Saudis in south Arabia

1915               Mustafa Kemal Ataturk emerges as a military hero at the Dardanelles. He became the charismatic leader of the Turkish national liberation struggle in 1919. He put an end to the Ottoman dynasty.

1915               Ottoman Empire defeats Allies in Çanakkale (Dardanalles).

1915               The Armenian Massacre 600,000 to 800,000 Armenians massacred by the Islamic government and their property seized for protesting sharia law in their country.

1915               April the Ottomans sent troops to regain control of the city of alNajaf, but the inhabitants resisted the forces and after a three-day fight, the Ottoman forces surrendered.

1915               The British lost the war in al-Kut (from December 1915 to the end of April 1916).

1915               June the inhabitants of Karbala’ rose up against the Ottomans and they dismissed the Turkish officials and administered the affairs of the city themselves.

1915               The Turk campaigning against the Russians in the Caucasus, took Tabriz which, however, was soon retaken by the Russian (Jan. 30). Persian territory was freely violated by both sides.(7 January)

1915               Ottoman Empire defeats Allies inÇanakkale(Dardanalles)

1916             Russian offensive against Turkey south of the Caucasus.(10 January)

1916             Allied forces withdrawn from Cape Helles on Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey.(8 January)

1916             Austro-Hungarian attack on Montenegro; the Serbian army flees to Corfa.(8 January)

1916                 Aug 1916 The Ottomans hang Arab patriots in Beirut’s Burj Square

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1916              Britain and France agree to partition the Middle East

1916               By the Sykes–Picot Agreement Britain and France plan post-war division of their post-war spheres of influence following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

1916               Husain (Hussein), sharif of Mecca (north Arabia) and founder of the modern Hashimite dynasty, sponsored by the British, leads a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, while Britain and France secretely agree to divide the Arab lands of the Ottoman empire

1916               Muslims and Hindus join together in Lucknow Pact seeking more self-rule in India and other reforms from the British government.

1916              Qatar signs a treaty with Britain becoming a de facto protectorate

1916               Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule in Hijaz, Palestine and Syria. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway.

1916               Allied withdrawal from Gallipoli Peninsula.(9 January)

1916               November,        the inhabitants of al-Hilla rose up against the Ottomans. The Ottomans sent between 4,000 and 6,000 troops against the city under the leadership of ‘ Akif Beg

  1. Russian offensive in Armenia.(11 January)

1917               Nov 1917 the “Balfour Declaration” by the British government promises a Jewish homeland in Palestine

1917               93% of the population of larger Palestine is Arab

1917               Britain publishes the Balfour Declaration. The British support Zionist claims for a Jewish state in Palestine.

1917               Exodus of Jews from Egypt to British Palestine

1917               Palestine, 1917 93% of the population of larger Palestine is Arab

1917               The population of British Egypt is 12 million, having increased by 4 million since 1882

1917                Jews of Tel Aviv are deported by the thousands; thousands are not allowed to take any provisions.

1917               Montagu’s reformsThe beginning of “dyarchy,” and an electorate of one-tenth of the male population

1917               Britain seizes control, creates state of Iraq.

1917               Battle of Kut. The city was taken Feb. 23. The victorious British then pursued the Turkey toward Baghdad.(9 January)

1917               November 2, Issuing of Balfour Declaration: British support for a “Jewish Homeland”

1917               March 11 Under the leadership of Lieutenant-General F. S. Maude, British troops managed to invade Baghdad after besieging it, and effected the eventual withdrawal of Turkish troops from the city, thus puting an end to Ottoman rule in Iraq.

 

1917               Britain issues the then-secretBalfour DeclarationpledgingBritish support for the creation of a Jewish national homeland inPalestine.

1918             Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrës to discuss Albania’s interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.

1918               Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.

1918               Jamal Abd al-Nasser born.(d. 1970)(15 January)

1918               November 11 =  World War I ends with the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, which was the last of the Islamic empires. the Egyptian nationalists return and begin a widespread, full scale effort to force the British out. The nationalist forces polarize under Khedive Fuad (who came to power in 1917) and the Wafd part of Saad Zaghlul, who have differing views on how Egypt should attain its independence. Many regions populated by Muslims in Africa and Asia are colonized by Europeans. Traditional religious ways of life are threatened and, in some cases, destroyed.

1918               Oct 1918; The Shiite imam Yahya gains independence from the Ottomans in tribal North Yemen with capital in Sana

1918               World War I ends on November 11.

1918               David Ben ­Gurion returns to Palestine after being exiled by the Ottoman Empire (Palestine)

1918              Faisal, son of Sharif Husain of Mecca, conquers Damascus from the Ottomans

1918               Palestine, 1918 David Ben-Gurion returns to Palestine after being exiled by the Ottoman Empire

1918              Saad Zaghloul founds the Wafd party in Egypt aiming for independence from Britain

1918               Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.

1918               The Hebrew University opens in Jerusalem 1918 Britain takes control of Iraq and Palestine from the Ottomans

1918              There are 620 thousand Muslims, 70 thousand Christians and 60 thousand Jews in Palestine

1918               Yemen becomes independent from the Ottomans under Yahya, the imam of the Zaydis

1918              November World War I ends, with Italian army occupying most of Albania and Serbian, Greek and French force occupying remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians.

1918             Kosovo became part of the newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy until WW II.     (Albania)

1918                Mahmud Tarzi (Afghan Intellectual) introduced modern Journalism into Afghanistan with the creation of several newspapers.

1919                Aug 19, Afghanistan established independence from the UK with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi.

1919                 The first museum in Afghanistan was instituted at Baghe Bala.

1919                 Afghanistan was recognized as a sovereign nation.

1919            The Emir of Afghanistan declared jihad against Britain’s forces in the North-West Frontier Province. In response Britain shipped a single Handley Page biplane bomber to Karachi. It flew over Kabul and dropped four 20-pound bombs. The emir sued for peace shortly thereafter.

1918                October – Arab troops led by Emir Feisal, and supported by British forces, capture Damascus, ending 400 years of Ottoman rule.

1918                Tripolitanian Republic declares independence from Italian Libya and becomes the first republican government in the Arab world.

1918               March-  the revolution of al-Najaf thawrat al-Najaf

1918               Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.

1918               -Birth of Gamal Abdel Nasser.After losing virtually their entireempire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign theArmistice of Mudros with theAllieson October 30.

1918               World War I ends on November 11.

1918               Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria.

1918               Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.

1919            June Albania denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French, and Greek negotiators laterdecide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy, and Yugoslavia.

1919             Serbs attacked Albanian cities; Albanians adopted guerilla warfare. Albania was denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decided to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision was vetoed by American president Wilson.

1919               After losing virtually their entire empire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. .

1919               After the Third Anglo-Afghan War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state.

1919               an American delegation reports on the fast rise of “zionism” through dispossession of the “nonJewish inhabitants of Palestine” (Palestine)

1919               Feisal Hussein, King of Iraq and Syria (then the only recognized Arab leader in the world), agrees to the creation of a Jewish nation in Palestine and executes a treaty with Jewish leader Chaim Weizmann (Palestine)

1919               France claims Syria and Lebanon

1919               Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) lands at Samsun. Kemal Ataturk leads the Turkish War of Independence against Western occupying forces. He establishes an independent and sovereign Turkey.

1919               One of the first mosques in America is established in Detroit, MI.

1919               Palestine, 1919 an American delegation reports on the fast rise of “zionism” through dispossession of the “non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine”

1919               Palestine, 1919 Feisal Hussein, King of Iraq and Syria (then the only recognized Arab leader in the world), agrees to the creation of a Jewish nation in Palestine and executes a treaty with Jewish leader Chaim Weizmann

1919                In Afghanistan Habibullah was assassinated, and succeeded by his son Amanullah (The reform King).

1919                The first revolution in Egypt led by Saad Zaghlul against British occupation.

1919               British army takes over administration of Baghdad Railway.(10 January)

1919               Jallianwala BaghIn Amritsar, General Dyer orders his Gurkha troops to fire into an illegal but peaceful demonstration in an enclosed garden; 370 trapped protesters were killed, over 1000 wounded

1919               the Rowlatt ActContinuation of wartime powers of detention and trial without jury

1919               – The first revolutioninEgyptled bySaad Zaghlulagainst Britishoccupation.

1919               Mar 1919 Saad Zaghloul of the Wafd party is arrested by the British in Egypt, causing riots that kill 1,500 Egyptians in two months

1919               -1924 — The Khilafat movement, a pan-Islamic political campaign, is launched by Muslims in British India to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. This provided a momentary rapprochement of the Sunni and Shia communities.

1919               -1921  The 3rd Anglo-Afghan war began. The British were defeated, and Afghanistan gained full control of her foreign affairs.

1919               -1924 End of the Ottoman Empire

1920             Dec. Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs.

1920             Jan; Albanian leaders met in Lushnje, rejected the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris; a bicameral parliament created;

1920             Sep. Albania forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.

1920             Dec. Albania is admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.

1920                 Apr 1920 At the San Remo conference Palestine and Iraq are assigned to Britain’s protectorate and both Palestinians and Iraqis riot against British rule for months

1920               A chapter of the Ottoman Red Crescent, modeled after the Red Cross, is established in Detroit.

1920               France defeats Faisal’s troops at Maysalun And general Gouraud’s French mandate rule is installed over Syria

1920               Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation.

1920               Palestine, 1920 British Mandate in Palestine is established

1920               Short-lived Hashemite Kingdom of Syria establish, which surrendered to French forces after the Battle of Maysalun.

1920               Syrian­born ex­Ottoman official Sati al­Husri preaches Arab nationalism

1920               The Sykes-Picot Agreement. Britain and France secretly negotiate the partition of the Middle East. The British Mandate of Palestine includes the Balfour Declaration, despite previous assurances to the Arabs for an independent state.

1920               Turkey, 1920 at the end of World War I the Treaty of Sevres calls for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state

1920               Armenia first defeated by the Turkish nationalists then the Soviets.

1920            Feb, Albanian government moved to Tirana, which became the capital.

1920                Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia.

1920               Turkish nationalistsdefeatArmenia.

1920               the Chamber of PrincesThe British create a forum through which the Princes can participate in political life

1920               San Remo conference splits up newly-created Arab kingdom by placing Syria-Lebanon under a French mandate, and Palestine under British control.

1920               April 24, Britain assigned mandatory power over Palestine at the San Remo Conference

1920               Dec 1920 An Arab Congress is held in Haifa, Palestine, chaired by Musa Kazim al­Husaini, the former mayor of Jerusalem

1920               -1922 – Turkish War of Independence.

1920               –Emirate of BukharaandKhanate of Khivaconquered byBolshevik Russia.

  1. Persia became one of the original member of the League of Nations.(10 January)

1920               OttomanSultan Mehmed VIsigns the Treaty of Sèvres, reducingthe Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for theindefinite presence of Alliedforces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected bynationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation.

1921                Battle of Inonu(11 January)

1921            December Albanian Popular Party, headed by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmed Zogu, the future King Zog, as internal affairs minister.

1921               Apr 1921 the British install Abdullah, fourth son of Sharif Hussein of the Hashemite dynasty of Mecca, as king of Transjordan, half of Palestine

1921              Nov, Yugoslav troops invaded Albania; The League of Nations commission forced Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirmed Albania’s 1913 borders.

1921               Aug 1921 the British install Faisal, third son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca, brother of Abdullah of Transjordan, as king of the newly created state fo Iraq that is 80% Arab (more Shiite than Sunni, with Sunnis dominating government and army), 15% Kurdish (Sunni) and 5% Assyrian (Christian)

1921               Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”.

1921               Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Makkah.

1921               Britain appoints Mohammed Amin al­Husseini head of the Supreme Muslim Council of Palestineand Husseini begins a violent anti­Semitic campaign and a murder campaign of Arab moderates (Palestine)

1921               Britain creates the Supreme Muslim Council of Palestine, headed by Hajj Amin al­Husaini

1921               Death of Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi.

1921               emir Faisal ibn Hussain, brother of King Abdallah of Jordan, is proclaimed King of Iraq, but still under British protectorate (Iraq)

1921               Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Makkah.

1921               Iraq, 1921 emir Faisal ibn Hussain, brother of King Abdallah of Jordan, is proclaimed King of Iraq, but still under British protectorate

1921               Palestine, 1921 Britain appoints Mohammed Amin al-Husseini head of the Supreme Muslim Council of Palestine, and Husseini begins a violent anti-Semitic campaign and a murder campaign of Arab moderates

1921             Dec, The Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, formed a government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs. Albania

1921        Afghanistan signed a Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union.

1921        Amanullah Khan initiates a series of ambitious efforts at social and political modernization.

1921        May 27, Afghanistan achieved sovereignty after 84 years of British control.

1921        Treaty of Ranalpindi. Afghanistan

1921                Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”.

1921                Abdullah I of Jordan in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of MeccaFaisal I of Iraq is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921               February – Military commander Reza Khan seizes power.

1921               Reza Khan Pahlavi stages largely bloodless coup in Persia.

1921                Treaty of Kars between Soviet Russia and Turkey.

1921               Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”.

1921               –Abdullah I of Jordanin made King of  Transjordan. His father wasthe Sharif of Makkah.Faisal I of Iraqis made King of Iraq. His father wasthe Sharif of Makkah.

1921               Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921               Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”

1921                          Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921               Britain places Abdullah ibn Husayn, the son of the sharif of Mecca, as the king of Transjordan. His brother, Faysal, is made the king of Iraq. Reza Khan leads a coup against the Qajar dynasty in Iran.

1921               Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921               The U.S. government passes the Johnson Act, which limits the number of Asian immigrants entering the U.S. The first issue of the quarterly journal “The Moslem Sunrise” is published. It is created to counter misrepresentations of Islam in the press.

1922               Britain and the Saudi family sign a treaty recognizing the border of the Saudi domain in Arabia

1922               Britain receives a mandate from the League of Nations to create a homeland for the Jews in Palestine, which starts large­scale Jewish immigration from Europe

1922              Britain receives a mandate from the League of Nations to create a homeland for the Jews in Palestinewhich starts large­scale Jewish immigration from Europe (Palestine)

1922               Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate..

1922               Palestine, 1922 Britain receives a mandate from the League of Nations to create a homeland for the Jews in Palestine, which starts large-scale Jewish immigration from Europe

1922              Syria and Lebanon become French protectorates

1922              The tomb of Tutankhamen is discovered in Egypt

1922             Aug, The ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognized the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.

1922             Sep, Ahmet Zogu, a tribal warlord, assumed the position of Prime Minister.  (Albania)

1922               Armistice of Mudanya. Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate, prompting Sultan Mehmed VI to flee Turkey; the 600‑year‑old Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist.

1922                Egypt unilaterally granted independence by the United KingdomBerlin Muslim Mission founded by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam.

1922                February; Egypt declares its independence from Britain under Fuad I and a secular constitution is proclaimed to create a parliamentary monarchy, the Wafd party wins a majority of votes but Britain maintains political control

1922               Chauri Chaura Gandhi calls off his first major “non-cooperation movement” after a mob in Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district locks 22 policemen in their station and burns it down

1922                Fuad I becomes King and Egypt gains independence, although British influence remains significant until mid-1950s.

1922                The British agree to give Egypt its independence, while retaining control over many important aspects of Egyptian sovereignty. Fuad adopts the title of “King.” The royalist forces are still opposed by the nationalists, led by Saad Zaghlul, and the tensions between them are often played out in clashes on the street

1922               –Egyptunilaterallygranted independenceby theUnited Kingdom.Berlin Muslim Missionfounded byLahore Ahmadiyya Movement for thePropagation of Islam.

1922               Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.

1922               Armistice of Mudanya. Turkish nationalists under the leadershipof Mustafa Kemalseize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate, promptingSultan Mehmed VIto flee Turkey; the 600 year-oldOttoman Empireofficially ceases to exist.

1923               Shah Ahmad left Iran for Europe and died in 1930;

1923                 Egypt, april 1923 a secular constitution is proclaimed in Egypt (previously a British colony) to create a parliamentary monarchy

1923              Albania’s Sunni Muslims broke ties with Constantinople and pledged primary allegiance to native country.

1923               Mustafa Kemal elected President of Turkey by Angora assembly.(13 January)

1923               – 1930 The Wafd Party, a political party aiming to end foreign dominance and create economic and social reforms, wins three major elections in Egypt. However, the British or the king force the party’s resignation each time and they are unable to govern.

1923               Abd al­Drim declares an independent state in Spanish­control Morocco

1923               Albanian Mussulmans’ Congress breaks with caliphate and reforms Islam in Albania by suppressing polygamy and the compulsory veiling of women.

1923               Ataturk creates a Republic in Turkey, as the first president, he institutes modernizing reforms and begins the secularization of Turkey. establishes a new government representative of the nation’s will. He instituted sweeping reforms in politics as well as in the social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres. Islam remains the mainstream religion, but the government is secular. Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey’s independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of TurkeyAnkara officially replaces Constantinople as Turkish capital.

1923                – Reza Khan becomes prime minister.

1923            Amanullah Khan changed his title from Amir to Padshah (King).

1923             Sep 26, Sir Aubrey Herbert (b.1880), Englishman, died. He worked for Albania’s independence and was twice offered the throne of Albania. He authored the WW 1 journal “Mons, Anzac & Kut.”

1923               April 1923 a secular constitution is proclaimed in Egypt (previously a British colony) to create a parliamentary monarchy (Egypt)

1923               Mustafa Kemal securesAlliedrecognition of Turkey’sindependence in the Treaty of Lausanneand subsequently declarestheRepublic of Turkey. The Turkish capitol is officially shifted toAnkara.

1924              Mar, Zogu’s party won elections for the National Assembly, but Zogu stepped down after a financial scandal and an assassination attempt.   (Albania)

1924               annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina

1924               Death of Ziya Gökalp

1924               King Abd al-Aziz conquers Makkah and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.

1924               Sharif Husain, the Hashemite ruler of Mecca, proclaims himself caliph, angering Aziz ibn Saud

1924               The British governor of Sudan, Lee Stack, is assassinated in Cairo, Egypt

1924               The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.

1924               The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate and sends the remaining members of the Ottoman House into exile in a move that begins the extensive de-Islamization of the public sphere in Turkey.

1924             Dec, Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returned to power and began to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli fled to Italy. (Albania)

1924             Jul, A peasant-backed insurgency won control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli became Prime Minister; Zogu fled to Yugoslavia.   (Albania)

1924               The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.

1924               The Turkish Grand National Assemblyabolishes the OttomanCaliphateand sends the remaining members of the Ottoman Houseinto exile.

1925              35 thousand Jews immigrate to Palestine in 1925 alone

1925               Pearl fishing revenues peak in the Arab emirates, Kuwait and Bahrein

1925               Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.

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1925               Riots in Lebanon and Syria against French rule

1925              The first parliament is elected in British Iraq, including four Christians and four Jews

1925               The Great Syrian Revolt breaks out across the various statelets of Syrian and Lebanon against French rule, which ultimately was put down by force in 1927.

1925               May Italy, under Mussolini, begins penetration of Albanian public and economic life.

1925                December – Parliament votes to make Reza Khan ruler, deposing Ahmad Shah Qajar. Reza Khan establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.

1925               ‘Ulama’ of al-Najaf  laid down two conditions. First, Rida should be Sultan only after establishing a council supervised by five of the mujtahids; second, the official doctrine of Iran would be Ithn ashari.

1925               Ahmadiyya Mosque Berlin opened byLahore AhmadiyyaMovement for the Propagation of Islam on April 26.

1926              Italy and Albania signed the First Treaty of Tirana, which guaranteed Zogu’s political position and Albania’s boundaries.

1926               Abdul al­Aziz ibn Saud conquers north Arabia from the Hashemites and proclaims himself king of Hejaz and Nejd

1926               Founding of the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), an organization of “traditionalist” Muslims associated with the network of pesantren schools in Java and opposed to some of the reforms of the
Muhammadiyah.

1926               France and Spain defeat Abd al­Drim in Morocco

1926               Lebanon proclaimed a parliamentary republic under French protectorate.

1926               Turkey cedes Mosul to Iraq

1926                 Oct 16, Mohammed Nadir Khan began a coup in Afghanistan and 1200 were killed.

1926                April -. Mohammad Reza, the Shah’s eldest son, is proclaimed Crown Prince.

1926               Mar 1926 France massacres rebels in Damascus

1926               Mar 1926 Lebanon proclaims a republic under Christian president Charles Dabbas but France still controls the country

1927               Iraq, 1927 huge oil fields are discovered near Karkuk and oil rights are granted to a British oil company

1927               Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India.

1927              The “Brotherhood” (“Ikhwan”) stages a rebellion against king Saud in Arabia

1927             Mar 10, Albania mobilized under the threat of Serbia, Croatia & Slovenes.

1927               Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul dies, leaving the King unopposed for control of the country

1928            Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (d 1979) the president of Pakistan  who was executed  for conspiring to murder a political rival, born. 5 January

1928               August Zogu pressures the parliament to dissolve itself; a newconstituent assembly declares Albania a kingdom and Zogubecomes Zog I, “King of the Albanians.”

1928               the school of Mirza Muhammad Hasan al-Shirazi in Samarra’ was furnished Sayyid Abu al-Hasan 1346/

1928               A new constitution makes Transjordan a constitutional monarchy

1928               Egypt, 1928 Hassan Al-Banna creates “Al-Ikhwan Al-Moslemoon” (Muslim Brotherhood), a quasi-monastic movement that advocates for the entire Arab world a fundamentalist Islamic society like the one created by the Wahabites in Saudi Arabia and therefore advocates rebellion against the westernized King Faruk government (motto “Quran is our law, jihad is our way, dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope”)

1928               Shakhbut al Nahyan becomes sultan of Abu Dhabi

1928               Turkey is declared a secular state.

1928             Sep 1, Albania became a kingdom. Ahmed Zogu, a Muslim chieftain, proclaimed Albania to be a monarchy and established himself as “His Majesty King Zog I.” Zogu pressured the parliament to dissolve itself, and a new constituent assembly declared Albania a kingdom with Zogu as Zog I, “King of the Albanians.” He obtained Italian aid for modernization and weakened the constitution to arrange for his son to succeed him. The National Assembly gave him a title that translates into “prince..

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1929           Khan Abd al-Ghaffar Khan, known as Sarhadi Gandhi,  born(15 January)

1929                Aug 1929 hundreds of people die in clashes between Arabs and Jews in Palestine, notably 67 Jews are massacred in Hebron

1929                In Afghanistan Queen Soraya (1899-1968), wife of King Amanullah Khan, was forced into exile following the abdication of King Amanullah. Soraya Tarzi had a modern approach to women’s issues and refused to wear a veil.

1929               Amanullah of Afghanistan abdicated in favour of his older brother, Inayatullah, an easygoing and ineffectual person.(14 January)

 

1929           Jan 17, In Afghanistan Habibullah Kalakani (1891-1929), popularly known as “Bache Saqaw,” became emir after deposing Amanullah Khan, the grandson of Rahman Khan, with the help of various Afghan tribes who opposed modernization. Khan had built 5-mile (8-km) track with steam locomotives running between Kabul and his European-style palace of Darulaman. But his plans for a wider network met with opposition. The line fell into disrepair after he was overthrown.

1929        Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), one of Afghanistan’s greatest intellectuals, sought asylum in Turkey after the fall of Amanullah Khan.

1929        Nov 1, Afghan emir Habibullah Kalakani (b.1891), popularly known as “Bache Saqaw,” was executed by firing squad along with his brother and 10 other rebel leaders.

1929        Oct 15, Nadir Khan (1983-1933) took the throne of Afghanistan after a 3-way power struggle. His tribal Wazir army looted government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters, and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan were killed by Nadir Khan and Khan established full control.

1929                Arabs in Palestine revolt against the Jewish population. Militant conflicts between Palestinians parties and Jewish settlers in Jerusalem over access to the Wailing Wall.

1929               King Alexander I.  suppresses Yugoslav constitution and establishes dictatorship.

1930         May, Pro-Amanullah Khan uprising was put down by Nadir Khan. Nadir Khan abolished reforms set forth by Amanullah Khan to modernize Afghanistan.

1930               Britain and Iraq sign a treaty making Iraq independent but recognizing British influence in Iraq

1930               Iran’s oil production is 46 million barrels, whereas Iraq’s is only 900 thousand

1930               King Saud of Hejaz (Arabia) defeats the “Brotherhood” (“Ikhwan”)

1930               Wallace D. Fard founds the Black Muslim movement, the Lost-Found Nation of Islam. It is based on some Islamic ideas, but contains innovations, such as the appointment or declaration of Elijah Muhammad as a prophet. Fard calls on African-Americans to reject the Christian religion of their white masters and return to the religion of their ancestors.

1930               -32– Round Table conferencesA series of all-party discussions in London to try to agree on future political arrangements; Gandhi, Jinnah, Ambedkar and others participate

1930               League of Nations Council appoints international commission to investigate legal status of Palestinians and Jews at Wailing Wall.(14 January)

  1. Hakeem Mohammad Saeed, founder of Hamdard Foundation, and scholar, born (d. 1999?).(9 January)
  2. Death of Mazharul Haq, Indian freedom fighter. (January 4)

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1931               A General Islam Conference held in Jerusalem over the Zionism question with delegates from North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia issues first Pan Arabic resolution.

1931               Abraham Tehomi founds the terrorist organization Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization) to liberate Palestine from British occupation and Arabs residents (Palestine)

1931               After 20 years of fighting Italy conquers Cyrenaica and therefore the whole of Libya

1931               Indian Muslim freedom fighter Maulana Muhammad Ali dies in London and buried in Jerusalem. (January 4)

1931               Palestine, 1931 Abraham Tehomi founds the terrorist organization Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization) to liberate Palestine from British occupation and Arabs residents

1931              There are 775 thousand Arabs, 90 thousand Christians and 175 thousand Jews in Palestine

1931              In Albania Zog refused to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continued with political and economic pressure.

1931                 Albania’s King Zog escaped an assassination attempt in Vienna.

1931                Jun 24, The Soviet Union and Afghanistan signed a treaty of neutrality.

1931                 The Bahrain Petroleum Company (Bapco), a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company of California (Socal), discovers oil at Jabal al-Dukhan and production begins the following year.

  1. Italian forces entered Sanusi movement in Algiers.(13 January)

1931               -1935 Sheik Izz al-Din al-Qassam and followers terrorize Jews of Palestine until al-Qassam is shot dead by police. Al-Qassam is hailed as a hero, and later a type of rocket is named after him.

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1932                France completes pacification of French Morocco.(15 January)

1932               Abdul al­Aziz ibn Saud changes name to his kingdom from Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd to Saudi Arabia

1932               Death of Abdullah Cevdet

1932               Iraq becomes independent under the rule of King Faisal and joins the League of Nations

1932               Said ibm Taimur becomes sultan of coastal Oman

1932               Saudi Arabia, 1932 Saudi Arabia becomes independent under the rule of King Abdul al-Aziz

1932              The Bahrein Petroleum Company (Bapco), formed by Standard Oil Company (Socal) and the Texas Company (both from the USA), discovers oil in Bahrein

1932              Tunisian intellectual Habib Bourguiba publicly demands independence from France

1932               “Communal Award”Special treatment, including separate electorates, is provided for a variety of minorities, including the untouchables

  1. Ansari, member of the India Congress Working Committee arrested.(8 January)
  2. T.A.K. Sherwani, a member of Indian Congress Working Committee arrested. Ansari assumed President-ship of the Congress. (January 4)

1933               Iraq, 1933 King Faisal dies and his son, King Ghazi I, ascends to the throne

1933               Seyyed Hossein Nasr born 1933

1933               There are 800 thousand Arabs and 200 thousand Jews in Palestine

1933              Thousands of Assyrian Christians are massacred at Simele in Iraq by the army and by Kurdish militias

1933               Thousands of German Jewish artisans and entrepreneurs emigrate to Palestine after Hitler seizes power in Germany

1933                King Zahir Shah (1914-2007) began his rule as king of Afghanistan. He kept the country in feudal backwardness until he was overthrown in 1973. His uncles served as prime ministers and advisors until 1953.

1933                Mahmud Tarzi, Afghan intellectual, died in Turkey at the age of 68. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism.

1933                Nadir Khan was assassinated by a college student, and his son, Zahir, inherited the throne.

1933               Nazi Germany adopts the jihadi practice of forcing Jews to wear identifying colored patches on their clothing, and later marks on their bodies.

1934         After Albania signed trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia. Italy suspended economic support, then attempted to threaten Albania.

1934               Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.

1934               Elijah Muhammad becomes the leader of the Nation of Islam after the disappearance of Fard. The NOI employs symbols and terms from Islam to provide a new identity and cohesiveness for African Americans.

1934              Italy unites Tripolitania and Cyrenaica into one colony, Libya

1934               Peace treaty of Ta’if.

1934               War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the YemenPeace treaty of TaifAsir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.

1934               Jun 23, Italy gained the right to colonize Albania after defeating the country.

1934               The United States of America formally recognized Afghanistan.

1934                Albania signed trade agreement with Greece and Yugoslavia; Italy suspended economic support; attempted to threaten Albania

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1935         Mussolini presented a gift of 3,000,000 gold francs to Albania; other economic aid followed.

1935               A pipeline from Iraq to Palestine is inaugurated

1935               Bakr Sidqi leads a Shiite rebellion in Iraq

1935               The Wafd party organizes strikes and demonstrations against Britain in Egypt

1935               Formerly known as Persia, Iran is adopted as the country’s official name.

1935                Iran (“Land of the Aryans“) becomes the official name of Persia.

1935               Gov’t of India Act A new federal framework creates elections that provide very major victories for Congress, only very minor ones for the Muslim League

1935               Opening of the great British oil pipeline from Mosul to Haifa. (January 4)

1935               -1936 — Iraqi Shiites stage violent uprisings against the minority Sunni government.

1936               April 15, Arab revolt begins

1936               Apr 1936 Palestinians go on strike against British rule (first “intifada”)

1936               Death of Fatma Aliye

1936               Egypt, 1936 Farouk becomes king of Egypt, succeeding his father Fuad, and installs a government friendly to the West

1936               Fuad dies and the throne of Egypt is inherited by his son Farouk, who signs a treaty with Britain granting real independence to Egypt in exchange for a military alliance

1936              General strike against French rule in Syria

1936               Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.

1936               Increased Jewish immigration leads to the Arab revolt in Palestine. The demonstrations turned violent in 1937 and met with violent repression from the British Army.

1936               Lebanon, 1936 Pierre Gemayel founds the Phalange party in Lebanon

1936               Oct 1936 Iraq and Saudi Arabia talks the Palestinians into ending the strike against British rule, thus making the Palestinian issue a general Arab issue

1936               Palestine, 1936 Arabs revolt against British rule in Palestine (first “intifada”)

1936               Pierre Gemayel founds the Phalange party in Lebanon

1936               The Shiite general Bakr Sidqi stages a coup in Iraq and installs the coup’s mastermind, Hikmat Sulaiman, as prime minister, the first of many military coups

1936               King Fuad dies, and is succeeded by his son, Farouk

1936               Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.

1936               Increased Jewishimmigration leads to anArabrevolt inPalestine in the Great Uprising.

1937               Egypt has 15.7 million people

1937               Bakr Sidqi is assassinated in Iraq

1937              Cairo’s population is 1,312,000 and replaces Istanbul as the largest city in the Middle East and North Africa

1937               Egypt is admitted to the League of Nations

1937                 Italy occupied Albania. [see Apr 8, 1939]

1937               Large oil reserves discovered by the US-British Kuwait Oil Company. Exploitation is delayed by World War II, but there after fuels the country’s development into a modern commercial centre.

1937               The Lebanon constitution, suspended some years previously, was restored. (January 4)

1938               Apr 1938 Tunisians demonstrate for independence from France

1938               Death of Muḥammad Iqbāl

1938               Oct 1938 Palestinian rebels occupy old Jerusalem

1938               Oil is discovered in Kuwait by the Kuwait Oil Company, formed by British Petroleum and the Gulf Oil Company of the USA

1938               Saudi Arabia, huge oil reserves discovered at Dharhan in Saudi Arabia by Standard Oil Company of California and production begins under the US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company

1938               The Iraq Petroleum Company controls all of Iraq’s oil production

1938              The Wafd party in Egypt loses elections

1938                Apr 27, King Zog of Albania married Geraldine Apponyi (22) of Hungary.

1938                 Da Afghanistan Bank (State Bank of Afghanistan) was incorporated.

1938                Jan 1, King Zog of Albania met Geraldine Apponyi (1915-2002). They became engaged 10 days later.

1938               Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died.İsmet İnönü second president of Turkey.

1938               Britain postpones scheme for partition of Palestine and appoints commission under John Woodhead, which is boycotted by Arabs. (January 4)

1938               –Mustafa Kemal Atatürkdied.İsmet İnönüsecond president of  Turkey.

1939                 May 17, 1939British White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine

1939                 Mar, Mussolini delivered an ultimatum to Albania. 

1939               – 1945 World War II. Iran is occupied by British and Russian forces. Reza Shah Pahlavi is forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Muhammad.

1939               all Arab countries supply only 5% of the world’s oil

1939               April. Mussolini’s troops invade and occupy Albania; Albanian parliament votes to unite Albania with Italy; Zog flees to Greece.

1939               Ariel Sharon joins an underground Jewish terrorist organization in British Palestine

1939               Iraq, 1939 King Ghazi dies in a car accident while he is preparing an invasion of Kuwait, and is succeeded by the regent Abd al Ilah

1939               Palestinian mufti Hajj Amin al­Husaini moves to Baghdad and campaigns for a free Palestine

1939               Parliament of ex France protectorate Republic of Hatay decides to join Turkey

1939               Start of World War II.

1939               There are 950 thousand Arabs, 460 thousand Jews and 120 thousand Christians in Palestine, with 150 thousand Jews living in Tel Aviv, the only purely Jewish city in the world, while the London conference attended by Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Jewish groups fails to find a solution

1939        Apr 7, Italy invaded Albania, which offered only token resistance. Less than a week later, Italy annexed Albania.

1939        Apr 8, Italy, under Fascist dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini seized the country of Albania. The Albanian parliament voted to unite Albania with Italy; King Zog fled to Greece.  [see Apr 7]

1939        In Afghanistan the state-run Karkar coal mine began production in Baghlan province.

1939        Jan15, Minor pro-Amanullah Khan uprising.

1939               Britain decides that the Hawar Islands which lie in the Gulf of Bahrain between Bahrain and Qatar belong to Bahrain not Qatar.

1939                — World War Two breaks out in Europe, and, once again, Egypt is expected to contribute to the British war effort. King Farouk is resistant to all-out support of the British war effort.

1939               -1945 – The Collapse of France and the Anglo-American occupation of North Africa during Second World War encourages hopes for independence.

1939               -1943    During the 4 years of Axis rule the province of Kosovo was annexed to the rest of Albania.

1940                Leader of the Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah urges a separate state for the Muslim minority in India.

1940               Palestine, november 1940 Haganah terrorists bomb the boat “Patria” full of Jewish immigrants at the port of Haifa, killing more than 200 people

1940                 All India Muslim League at Lahore formally resolves in favor of an independent Muslim state. the Pakistan Resolution In its 1940 meeting, the Muslim League calls for the creation of Pakistan

1940        Apr 12, Italy annexed Albania.

1940        Oct 28, Italy invaded Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania. Greece successfully resisted Italy’s attack.

1940        Zahir Shah proclaimed Afghanistan as neutral during WW2.

1940                          Nov 1940 Haganah terrorists bomb the boat “Patria” full of Jewish immigrants at the port of Haifa in Palestine, killing more than 200 people

  1. All men over 17 obliged to do National service in Afghanistan. Special taxes imposed to pay for arms.(12 January)

1940               -1944    Britain’s Special Operations Executive, an agency set up by Winston Churchill, carried out operations in Albania to support `anti-German partisans. In 2008 Roderick Bailey authored “The Wildest Province SOE in the Land of the Eagle.”

1941                 Iraq, april 1941 prime minister Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani stages a pro-nazi military coup

1941               Apr 1941 The nationalist Rashid Ali al­Kailani stages a coup in Iraq and allies with Nazi Germany, but Britain destroys the Iraqi air force and installs Nuri al­Said as prime minister

1941               British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.

1941               Iran, 1941 Reza Shah Pahlevi ascends to the throne of Iran when his father is deposed by British and Soviet troops for collaborating with the nazis

1941               Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India.

1941               September16      At the beginning of the World War II, Iranian territory was occupied by Allied troops, and the Shah was obliged of abdicate in favour of his son Muhammad

1941               Syria, 1941 the Ba’ ath Party is founded in Damascus by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din Bitar with the mission to unify the whole Arab world in one Arab country

1941               the Ba’ ath Party is founded in Damascus by Michel Aflaq and Salah al­Din Bitar with the mission to unify the whole Arab world in one Arab country

1941                     November. Albanian Communist Party founded; Enver Hoxha becomes first secretary.

1941                   October. Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directs organizing of Albanian communists.

1941             Apr 6, German troops invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia.

1941             Oct, Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directed the organizing of Albanian communists.

1941                – The Shah’s pro-Axis allegiance in World War II leads to the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran and the deposition of the Shah in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

1941      Enver Hoxha became head of new Albanian Communist Party

1941             Jan 4, On the Greek-Albanian front, the Greeks launched an attack towards Valona from Berat to Klisura against the Italians.

1941             Mar 9, Italians launched a large-scale counterattack across the center of the front against Greece, which, despite the superiority of the Italian armed forces, failed. After one week and 12,000 casualties, Mussolini called off the counterattack and left Albania 12 days later.

1941             Nov, The Albanian Communist Party was founded; Enver Hoxha became the first secretary. 

1941             Apr 17, Yugoslavia surrendered to Germany ending 11 days of futile resistance against the invading German Wehrmacht. More than 300,000 Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia.

1941               Islamic Hajj Amin el-Husseini, former Mufti of Jerusalem, foments a pogrom against Jews in Baghdad. His effort to install in pro-Nazi government in Iraq fails.

1941               British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.

  1. Mansur Ali Khan, alias Nawab of Pataudi, Indian Cricket Captain, born. (5 January)

1941               -1942 Japan invades Malaya, Singapore, and the Dutch East Indies, incorporating the region into their “Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere” and mobilizing local Muslims in resistance to European attempts to retake the archipelago.

1941               –British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced toabdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shahin Iran. Sayyid AbulAla Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood‘s SouthAsiancounterpart.

1942             British advances westwards through Libya reach Mersa Brega, near El Agheila.(6 January)

1942         Japanese take Kuala Lumpur,  Malaya in World War II.(10 January)

1942               Japanese advancing through Malaya take Kuala  Lumpur.(11 January)

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1942      October. Non-communist nationalist groups form to resist the Italian occupation.

1942      September. Communist Party organizes National Liberation Movement, a popular front resistance organization.

1942      September. German forces invade and occupy Albania.

1942               February;  Britain forces king Farouk of Egypt to appoint Wasfd’s leader Mustafa al­Nahas as prime minister

1942               Black Sea, Feb 1942 A Soviet submarine accidentally sinks the ramshackle ship Struma, killing 768 Jews that are escaping from Romania towards British Palestine

1942               Life expectancy in Egypt is 31 for men and 36 for women

1942             Oct, Non-communist nationalist groups formed to resist the Italian occupation.   (Albania)

1942               Allies oust Italians from Libya, which is then divided between the French and the British.

1942               Fearful that King Farouk is about to appoint a Prime Minister with pro-Axis leanings, the British force him, at gunpoint, to appoint a more moderate candidate. The insult is felt by all Egyptians, who lose respect for their King for backing down.

1942               British recapture Bardia, Libya, in World War II.(9 January)

  1. Start of rationing of bread in Turkey.(13 January)

1943           French Foreign Ministry informs Turkey that it cannot protect Jewish Turks from anti-Jewish laws imposed by Nazis much longer, and that best way to save Jewish Turks was to send them back to Turkey.(13 January)

1943      August. Italy’s surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italian divisions.

1943                          Syria (2.5 million people) and Lebanon declare independence from France under respectively Shukri al­Kuwatli and Bishara al­Khuri, but Lebanon has to divide its government among Maronite Christians (presidency), Sunni Muslims (prime minister), speaker of parliament (Shiite Muslim) and chief of army (also Maronites)

1943               Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.

1943               famine in Bengal A million people may have perished

1943               Shukri al­Kuwatli leads Syria to independence from the French

1943               The Istiqlal Party is created in Morocco to press for independence from France and Morocco

1943                   August Italy’s surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italiandivisions.

1943             Sep, German forces invaded and occupied Albania. 

1943               El-Husseini petitions Hitler’s Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to disrupt an effort to transfer of 4,000 Jewish children to Palestine. Ribbentrop later hangs at Nuremburg.

1943               January Iraq declares war on Germany Feb 1942 A Soviet submarine accidentally sinks the ramshackle ship Strumakilling 768 Jews that are escaping from Romania towards British Palestine (Black Sea)

1943               Turkish Grand National Assembly passes a law to give free bread to poor families.(8 January)

1943               Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.

1943               -1944 El-Husseini successfully petitions German, Rumanian, and Hungarian government officials to cancel nearly a half-million exit visas granted to Jews. Those Jews eventually go to Polish concentration camps.

1944      November (Albania) Germans withdraw from Tiranė, communists move into the capital.

1944              Jan, Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gained control of southern Albania. 

1944      December. Communist provisional government adopts laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.

1944      January Communist partisans, supplied with British weapons, gain control of southern Albania.

1944             Dec, A Communist provisional government adopted laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.  (Albania)

1944             Jul, Communist forces entered central and northern Albania. 

1944             May, Communists met to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha became chairman of the executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania from 1944 until 1983. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy’s occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.

1944      Germans withdrew after Communist resistance; Enver Hoxha installed as new leader

1944     -1983    Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy’s occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.

1944     May. Communists meet to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha becomes chairman of executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation.

1944     November. Germans withdraw from Tirana, communists enter capital.

1944             Nov 29, Albania was liberated from Nazi control (National Day). Germans withdrew from Tirana and communists entered the capital. The Communists established a provisional government with Enver Hoxha as prime minister. 

1944               El-Husseini recruits Bosnian Muslims for Nazi SS units. Broadcasting to the Arab world from Berlin, he states, “Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history, and religion.” El-Husseini disappears back into the Middle East. A young subordinate of el-Husseini’s was Yasser Arafat.

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1944               October. Communists establish provisional government with Hoxha as prime minister.

1945         Jan, The Albanian Communist provisional government of Enver Hoxha agreed to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia under Tito as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders brought Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals began in Albania to condemn thousands of “war criminals” and “enemies of the people” to death or prison. The Communist regime began to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures. 

1945               December; Initiation of Arab League Boycott (on the Jewish community of Palestine)

1945               February;  Syria and Lebanon declare war on Germany

1945               Algeria, may 1945 Algerians massacre 103 Europeans and the French kill 1,300 in retaliation

1945               An oil company (later renamed Arabian American Oil Company or Aramco) builds an underwater oil pipeline to Bahrain

1945               End of World War IIIndonesia declares independence from the Netherlands. New leader Sukarno decides not to implement sharia law nationwide.

1945               Indonesian declaration of Independence, August 17; Sukarno is the first president, with Mohammad Hatta as his deputy.

1945               May 1945 Algerians massacre 103 Europeans and the French kill 1,300 in retaliation

1945               May 1945 Syrians riots against continued French occupation and France bombs Damascus

1945               several thousand Algerians are killed by France during pro­independence riots in Constantine

1945               The League of Arab States is formed by the independent Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yemen)

1945                   Albania; August Sweeping agricultural reforms begin; about half of arableland eventually redistributed to peasants from largelandowners; most church properties nationalized. UnitedNations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration beginssending supplies to Albania.

1945      Albania; November Soviet Union recognizes provisional government; Britain andUnited States make full diplomatic recognition conditional.

1945      December Albania; In elections for the People’s Assembly only candidates from the Democratic Front are on ballot.

1945      January  (Albania)   Communist provisional government agrees to restore Kosovo to Yugoslavia as an autonomous region; tribunals begin tocondemn thousands of “war criminals” and “enemies of thepeople” to death or to prison. Communist regime begins to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.

1945     April Yugoslavia recognizes communist government in Albania.

1945               Pro-independence demonstrations in Setif. Thousands are killed in suppression of ensuing unrest.

1945             Dec, Elections were held for the People’s Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front were permitted to participate.  (Albania)

1945               League of Arab States formed at meeting in Cairo.

1945                          Japanese surrender to Allied Forces on August 15, creating a power vacuum in the areas that they had occupied.

1945               The Turkish government broke off diplomatic relations with Japan.                 (6 January)

  1. Egyptian elections, boycotted by the Wafd party, result in majority for Ahmed Pasha, the premier.(8 January)

1945               -60s Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India.

1945               End of World War II.Indonesiadeclares independence from theNetherlands

1946                Iran, 1946 Mustafa Barzani founds the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iraq

1946                  July; Treaty of friendship and cooperation signed with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisers and grain begin pouring into Albania.

1946              The People’s Assembly proclaimed Albania a “people’s republic”; purges of non-communists from government positions began. The People’s Assembly adopted a new constitution. Enver Hoxha became prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.

1946                July 22, 1946  Irgun bombs King David Hotel

1946                July Jewish terrorists led by Menachem Begin bomb and destroy the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the British military and civilian headquarters of Palestine, killing 91 people

1946               Constitutional Assembly in Albania proclaims a People’s Republic.(11 January)

1946               October. British destroyers hit mines off Albania’s coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemn Albania.

1946               Palestine, july 1946 Jewish terrorists, led by Menachem Begin, bomb and destroy the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the British military and civilian headquarters, killing 91 people

1946               “Direct Action -, Jinnah calls for “Direct Action,” and from Aug. 16th-20th over 4000 people of both communities are killed in mob violence in Calcutta; in many areas more mob violence is an increasing danger

1946               French troops finally leave Syria and Lebanon

1946               Jewish terrorists, led by Menachem Begin, bomb and destroy the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the British military and civilian headquarters

1946               Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.

1946               Mustafa Barzani founds the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iraq (Iran)

1946               Singapore becomes a Crown Colony, separate from British Malaya.

1946               The British troops stationed in Egypt withdraw in the Canal Zone but fedayeen begin a campaign of attacks against them

1946               Transjordan becomes independent under king Abdullah

1946                January People’s Assembly proclaims Albania a “people’s republic”; purges of noncommunists from positions of power ingovernment begins.People’s Assembly adopts new constitution, Hoxha becomes prime minister, foreign minister, defense minister, andcommander-in-chief; Soviet-style central planning begins.

1946                November Albania breaks diplomatic relations with the United States after latter withdraws its informal mission.

1946             Jul, Albania signed a treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain began pouring into Albania. 

1946             Oct, British destroyers hit mines off Albania’s coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemned Albania. 

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1946               – Jordan,Lebanon, andSyriaare granted independence fromBritainandFrance.

1946               Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.

1946               The Arab League declares a boycott on Jewish goods manufactured in Palestine.-(7 January)

  1. Following repeated demands for an opposition party, the government admitted the Democratic Party under former Premier Jalal Bayer.(8 January)

1946               -1952 Malcolm Little serves a six and half year sentence for armed robbery. He joins the Nation of Islam during his stay in prison. After his release he rises in the ranks of the NOI and is given the name Malcolm X.

1946               -47– desperate negotiationsCongress, the Muslim League, and the British are locked in desperate, stubborn negotiations to find a framework for independence

1947                    July Albania refuses participation in the Marshall Plan of the United States.

1947                          Car bomb driven by Irgunists  into British administrative headquarters in Haifa.(12 January)

1947                          November 29, 1947 UN Partition Plan approved (Resolution 181)

1948                          May 14, 1948   Declaration of the State of Israel

1947               800 thousand Arabs live in Palestine

1947               India gains independence from Britain, and Pakistan is created from the region’s Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.

1947               India, october 1947 the Maharajah of Kashmir decides to join India and not Pakistan, pending a plebiscite

1947               Pakistan, october 1947 following rioting by the Muslim majority in Kashmir, Pakistani troops attack India and occupy part of Kashmir

1947               Palestine, november 1947 Jews set to create the state of Israel while Arabs condemn the United Nations decision and refuse to create an Arab state that does not include the whole of Palestine

1947               Syria grants women the right to vote

1947               Syria, 1947 the Baath Arab Socialist party is founded in Syria

1947               the United Nations orders a partition of Palestine in a Jewish state (Israel), an Arab state and an international zone around Jerusalem

1947      April Albania; Economic Planning Commission draws up first economic planthat established production targets for mining,manufacturing and agricultural enterprises.

1947      MayUN commission concludes that Albania, together with Bulgariaand Yugoslavia, supports communist guerrillas in Greece;Yugoslav leaders launch verbal offensive against anti-Yugoslav Albanian communists, including Hoxha; pro-Yugoslavfaction begins to wield power.

1947             King of Albania (1939-1943), died.

1947        A force of Wazirs and Mehsuds was dispatched to seize Kashmir for the newly formed Islamic republic of Pakistan, sparking the first Indo-Pakistan war.

1947        Britain withdrew from India. Pakistan was carved out of Indian and Afghan lands.

1947                          -8 — Egyptian troops participate in the unsuccessful war against the new State of Israel.

1947                          Dec 1947 scores of Arabs are killed by Hagana in the Palestinian village of Baldat al­Shaikh in retaliation for 41 killed in Haifa riots

1947                          February 14, 1947Britain gives UN responsibility for Palestine

1947                          Jan 1961 former French officers led by general Raoul Salan form the Organisation de l’Armee Secrete (OAS) to fight Arabs in Algeriakilling 12,000 Arab civilians in one year (Algeria)

1947                          Nov 1947 Jews set to create the state of Israel while Arabs condemn the United Nations decision and refuse to create an Arab state that does not include the whole of Palestine

1947                          Nov 1947 the United Nations orders a partition of Palestine in a Jewish state (Israel)an Arab state and an international zone around Jerusalem (Palestine)

1947               Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.

  1. Operation Polly; British troops forbidden to visit cinemas in Palestine.(15 January)
  2. Transjordan and Turkey signed a pact of friendship.(11 January)

1947               India gains independence from Britain, andPakistanis createdfrom the region’sMuslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmirleads to thefirstIndo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.

1948             British troops clash with Arab Liberation Army volunteers attacking colonies of Dan and Kfar Szold.(9 January)

1948             First contingent of 330 ALA (Arab Liberation Army) volunteers arrives in Palestine.(8 January)

1948             Irgun plants explosives at Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem, killing 25 Palestinian civilians.(7 January)

1948           ALA assault on Jewish settlement of Kefar Szold repulsed with help of British.(10 January)

1948                May 1948 Palestinians in Jerusalem and Jaffa call a general strike against the partition

1948               NovemberFirst Party Congress changes name of Albanian CommunistParty to Albanian Party of Labor.

1948      SeptemberHoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of”Titoism”; treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia abrogated byAlbania; Soviet Union begins giving economic aid to Albania
and Soviet advisers replace ousted Yugoslavs.

1948                             June. Cominform expels Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launch anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and force Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia is abrogated; Hoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of “Titoism”; Soviet Union begins economic aid to Albania.

1948         Albanian Communist Party leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.

1948                           Jul 1948 several massacres of Arabs carried out by Haganah (underground Jewish militia) in Palestine (Lydda, Ramle, Doueimah)

1948               April 1948 Israeli troops occupy Arab towns (Tiberias, Haifa, Jaffaetc)

1948               Almost 1000 books per year are published in Egypt

1948               April 1948 Irgun terrorists led by Menachem Begin attack the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem killing more than 100 people and a few days later Arab retaliate by killing 70 Jews of the Hebrew University

1948               C.E. The state of Israel is created. Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees flee to the United States, among them, Muslims and Christians.

1948               Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.

1948               India, 1948 India refuses to allow the plebiscite in Kashmir and Kashmir separatism is born

1948               May 1948 On the same day that Israel declares its independencethe United States recognizes Israel while five Arab countries attack Israel from all sides (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq)

1948               North Yemen’s imam Yahya is assassinated and replaced by his son Ahmad Hamid al­Din

1948               on the same day that Israel declares its independence, five Arab countries attack Israel from all sides (Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq), and Transjordan annexes the West Bank changing name into Jordan and more than doubling its population overnight

1948               Pakistan, 1948 The Balochis start their first insurrection against Pakistan

1948               Palestine, 1948 Palestinian exodus and David Ben-Gurion’s ethnic cleansing cause a decrease in the population of Arabs within the borders of Israel and the creation of refugee camps outside its borders

1948               The state of Israel is created. Some Palestinian and Lebanese refugees flee to the United States, among them, Muslims and Christians.

1948               The Yemeni imam Yahya is assassinated and is succeeded by his son Ahmad

1948             Nov, Communist Party of Albania renamed itself the Party of Labor of Albania. 

1948                   Albania broke ties with Yugoslavia; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania

1948                  Hoxha severs ties with Yugoslavia.  Albania turns to Stalin and the Soviet Union.

1948                              November. Communist Party of Albania renames itself the Party of Labor of Albania.

1948             Jun, Cominform expelled Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of “Titoism”; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania. 

1948                Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah dies in Karachi.

1948               Irgun uses car bomb to blow up Grand Serai in Jafa, killing several Palestinian civilians. (January 4)

1948                          February-March Albanian Communist Party leaders vote to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.

1948                          Israel, july 1948 several massacres of Arabs carried out by Haganah (underground Jewish militia) in Palestine (Lydda, Ramle, Doueimah)

1948                          May 15, 1948 – January 1949Outbreak of War of Independence.  Ends January 1949

1948                          Palestine, april 1948 Irgun terrorists led by Menachem Begin attack the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem killing more than 100 people, and a few days later Arab retaliate by killing 70 Jews of the Hebrew University

1948                          Palestine, april 1948 Israeli troops occupy Arab towns (Tiberias, Haifa, Jaffa, etc)

1948                          Palestine, may 1948 on the same day that Israel declares its independence, the United States recognizes Israel while five Arab countries attack Israel from all sides (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq)

1948                          Palestine, may 1948 Palestinians in Jerusalem and Jaffa call a general strike against the partition

1948               Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.

1948               Haganah blows up Semiramis Hotel in Palestinian residential quarter of Jerusalem, killing several civilians.(5 January)

1948               Haganah emissaries concludes Czechoslovakia Arms Deal.(14 January)

  1. Britain and Iraq sign a 20 year alliance. The treaty with Britain providing for continued presence of British troops failed of ratification because of popular opposition.(15 January)

1948               -1962 Instances of armed Muslim resistance to the Indonesian national government increasingly under the name of Darul Islam in West Java, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, and Aceh.

1948               –Arabcountries attack the new state of Israeland suffer defeat inwar with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestiniansaredisplaced,Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was died in Karachi,Warof Kashmir.

1948               The British withdraw from Palestine. The Jews are given fifty-five percent of historical Palestine via the United Nations partition. The State of Israel is created. Al-Nakba (“The Disaster”). The mass exodus of 750,000 Palestinians forced to leave their homes due to Jewish raids and siege of their ancestral lands. The refugees are denied the right of return to their homeland.

1949                                January Members of the Muslim Brotherhood assassinate Egyptian prime minister Mahmud Fahmi alNuqrashi

1949               A military coup terminates the parliamentary system in Syria

1949               About 100,000 Palestinians (mostly Sunni Muslims) relocate from Palestine to Lebanon, altering its demographics

1949               Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani becomes sheik of Kuwait

1949               An exodus of Palestinians and prime minister David Ben­Gurion’s ethnic cleansing cause a decrease in the population of Arabs within the borders of Israel to 170 thousand and the creation of Palestinian refugee camps outside the borders of Israel

1949               End of Dutch military attempts to regain control of Indonesia.

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1949               Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.

1949               Husni Zaim seizes overthrows the corrupt president, appoints himself prime minister and bans political parties in Syria, but he is soon arrested and executed by general Sami al­Hinnawi, who is in turn ousted by colonel Adib Shishakli

1949              The Qatar Petroleum Company, a subsidiary of the Iraq Petroleum Company, start producing oil in Qatar

1949      DecemberPro-Tito Albanian communists purged.

1949      FebruaryAlbania joins Council for Mutual Economic Assistance(Comecon); all foreign trade conducted with membercountries.

1949             Jun 10, In Albania Koci Xoxe, former Communist vice-premier, and a number of other officials were convicted as Yugoslav agents. Xoxe was executed on Jun 11. As arrests continued large numbers of Albanians fled the country.

1949                 January Albania; Regime issues Decree on Religious Communities.

1949               Afghanistan’s parliament refuses to recognizes new boundaries drawn by Great Britain establishing an independent Pakistan. In the coming years, Afghanistan will develop close ties with the Soviet Union after the United States refuses to grant military aid.

1949        Afghanistan’s Parliament denounced the Durand Treaty and refused to recognize the Durand line as a legal boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

1949        Pashtuns in Pashtunistan (Occupied Afghan Land) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but their proclamation went unacknowledged by the world community.
1932 viquar

1949                Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces.

1949                Second East Turkestan Republic overthrown and re-incorporated into Xinjiang.

1949                          Jul 1949 The first Arab­ Israeli war ends with Israel winning west Jerusalem and small pieces of landoccupying 78% of Palestineand with 750,000 Palestinians displaced out of a pre­war population of 1.3 million

1949                          Palestine, july 1949 The war ends with Israel winning west Jerusalem and small pieces of land, occupying 78% of Palestine, and with 750,000 Palestinians displaced out of a pre-war population of 1.3 million

1949                          January 25, 1949 Israel’s first national election takes place; David Ben-Gurion elected Prime Minister

1949               First Arab-Israel war; Israel has gained possession of at least 2000 square miles of Palestinian territory, including the Negev Desert, bringing the new state to 7000 Sq. miles. Ceasefire ends War of Independence. Armistice agreement signed July 1949; Arab League, however, closes it Frontiers to Israel and declares itself in a permanent state of war with Israel.(7 January)

1949               First Arab-Israeli war. Israel and Egypt announce a cease-fire on all fronts to begin Jan 7, 1949.

  1. Israel withdraws its troops from Egypt.(10 January)

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1950                          Mohammad Said forms Iranian government.(14 January)

1950                 September 1950  Operation Magic Carpet completed; 47,000 Yemeni Jews brought to Israel

1950               An oil pipeline from Saudi Arabia’s oil field of Dhahran to Lebanon is completed

1950               Aramco and Saudi Arabia reach an agreement to split oil profits, an agreement that becomes the standard in the region Jan 1950 The Wafd wins democratic elections in Egypt

1950               May 1950 The Israeli government airlifts approximately 110,000 Jews from Iraq to Israel (operations Ezra and Nehemiah, completed in august 1951)

1950               May 1950 Operation Ali Baba; brings 113,000 Iraqi Jews to Israel

1950               Pakistan, 1950 Deobandis Muslims create their own political party, the Jamiat Ulema Islam (JUI)

1950               the Israeli government airlifts approximately 110 thousand Jews from Iraq to Israel

1950               There are 38 thousand British soldiers in Egypt to protect the Suez Canal, through which transits 60% of the Middle Eastern oil consumed in Western Europe

1950              Britain and United States inserted anti-Communist guerillas into Albania; all were unsuccessful.

1950                   Britain and U.S. backed landings by right-wing guerillas, who failed to topple communists

1950                  Britain and the United States begin efforts to overthrow Hoxha by infiltrating anti-communist guerillas. (Albania)

1950                  Britain and United States begin inserting anticommunistAlbanian guerrilla units into Albania; all are unsuccessful.

1950                  Britain and United States insert anti-communist guerillas into Albania; all are unsuccessful.

1950                JulyAlbania; A new constitution is approved by People’s Assembly. Hoxha
becomes minister of defense and foreign minister.

1950                Ali Razmara becomes prime minister and is assassinated less than nine months later. He is succeeded by the nationalist, Mohammad Mossadeq.

1950             Feb 13, Albania recognized Ho Chi Minh’s Vietnamese government, becoming the sixth Eastern bloc country to do so.

1950                          Iraq, may 1950 the Israeli government airlifts approximately 110,000 Jews to Israel (operations Ezra and Nehemiah, completed in august 1951)

1950                                          a charitable society called Anjuman Khairiyya Hujjatiyya Mahdawiyya, “The Hujjatiyya Mahdawiyya Charity”, by Shaykh Mahmud Dhakir Zadah Tawallai, known also as Muhammad Halabi. founded

  1. Treaty of Peace and friendship signed by Afghanistan and India. (January 4)
  2. Afghanistan recognises Chinese People’s of Republic.(13 January)
  3. Restriction lifted from the Ikhwan al-Muslimeen by Egyptian government (12 January)
  4. Mustafa al-Nihas Pasha became prime minister of Egypt which includes all ministers dismissed in 1944 reopened negotiations with Great Britain for revision of the 1936 treaty.(12 January)