18th Century

1700                           Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid’a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.

1700                           Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad.

1700                           Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.

1700                           Murshid Quli Jafar Khandeclares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital atMurshidabad. By the end of this century,global Muslim population had grown to 11 per cent of the total.

1700                           Nomadic tribes from central Arabia settle in the bay of Kuwait City, among them the Al-Sabah family whose descendants now rule Kuwait.

1703                           : In Ottoman Empire Ahmed III becomes the Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab.

1703                           -62– Shah WaliullahThis great Islamic scholar systematizes the Islamic curriculum, and translates the Qur’an into Persian; his two sons later translate it into Urdu

1703:- – InOttoman Empire Ahmed III becomes theSultan. Birth of ShahWali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformerMuhammad ibn Abd alWahhab.

1703-1730: Cultural revival under Ahmed III, an Ottoman Sultan.

1705                    Husayn Ali seizes power in Tunisia, an Ottoman vassal, and establishes a new dynasty

1707 Death of Muḥibballāh al-Bihārī

1707                           — Aurangzeb dies in the DeccanHe is buried in a very simple tomb at Aurangabad, right near the temples of Ellora.

1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.. The Moghul Empire begins to disintegrate.

1708 — Mir Wais, considered by some the father of Afghan independence, successfully takes over Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. His son, Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and liberates Herat. But by 1736, the Persians start to re-establish their grip on the region.

1708                           The assassination of Guru Gobind Singh sets off Sikh revolts against Moghul rule in India.

1708: The assassination of Guru Gobind Singh sets off Sikh revolts against Moghul rule in India.

1711                           /War between Ottoman Empire andRussia(Russo-Turkish War,1710-1711). Russia defeated at theBattle of Pruthand Treaty of Pruth signed.

1711                    Ahmad Qaramanli seizes power in Tripolitania and founds a new dynasty under Ottoman suzerainty

1711: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1710–11)). Russia defeated at the Battle of Pruth and Treaty of the Pruth signed..

1712:- – Death of theMughalemperorBahadur Shah I, accession of  Jahandar Shah.

1713                           : Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukhsiyar.

1713                           -19– Reign of FarrukhsiyarAfter Aurangzeb’s death a period of chaos ensues; not until 1713 does Farrukhsiyar manage to take power

1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukhsiyar.

1713: The British displace the Dutch as the most powerful force in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans..

1715: In Ottoman Empire the peninsula of Morea and other Adriatic fortresses that had been ceded to Venetian Republic are reconquered…

1716                    Defeat of Ottoman Empire armies by the Austrians under PrinceEugene of Savoy atBattle of Peterwardeinand loss of strategic fortressof Temesvar.

1716: Defeat of Ottoman Empire armies by the Austrians under Prince Eugene of Savoy at Battle of Peterwardein and loss of strategic fortress of Temesvar.

1718                    In the war againstAustria, Ottoman Empire suffers continuingdefeat and loss of fortress of Belgrade. By the Treaty of Passarowitz,Ottomans lostHungary.

1719                           : Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar. Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind, the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora. In Ottoman Empire start of a long-period of peace, enlightenment and prosperity that was later named the Tulip period.

1719                           -48– Muhammad Shah reignsDuring his reign, the empire gradually disintegrates; Mughal governors and local chieftains  become independent rulers of many regional kingdoms

1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar, Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind, the Kalhoras came to power under NurProphet Muhammad (pbuh)Kalhora. In Ottoman Empire start of a long-period of peace, enlightenment and prosperity that was later named the Tulip period.

1720                    “Jantar Mantars” built Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur, one of Muhammad Shah’s governors, builds remarkable astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Banaras, and Calcutta

1720                           -39– Saadat Khan in AvadhBy refusing a transfer to Malwa in 1927, Mughal governor Saadat Khan politely establishes his independent power base. The first Nawab of Avadh helps pacify this rich but fractious nominally-Mughal province in the Gangetic heartland; he founds Faizabad, but Lucknow continues eminent (Firangi Mahal famiy of ‘ulama)

1722 Tahmasp II, last Safavid ruler of Persia ascends the Persian throne. Nizam ul Mulk is appointed the Subedar of Hyderabad..

1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.

1723- 1725 The Ottomans and Russia exploit the chaos caused by the Afghan rebellion and seize Persian territories.

1724                           — Nizam of Hyderabad Nizam ul-Mulk, a Mughal governor, seizes a kingdom for himself and founds a hereditary kingdom that lasts, with ups and downs, till 1948

1726- 1736 Military leader Nadir Khan defeats the Afghans in a series of battles.

1730- 1735 The Afghans are driven out of Persia. Nadir Khan ends the Safavid dynasty and becomes Shah of Persia. He restores the territories lost to Russian and the Ottomans.

1730                           Zanzibar freed from Portugese rule and occupied by Oreart.

1730:. In Ottoman Empire Sultan Ahmed III is deposed by Patrona Insurrection which ends the Tulip period. Mahmud I ascends the throne.

1731                           Death of ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī

1732                           : A Muslim slave by the name of Ayyub Bin Sulaiman Jallon from Boonda, Galumbo is set free by James Oglethrope, the founder of Georgia, and provided transportation to England. In 1735, three years later, he arrived home. He arrived home (Boonda, Galumbo) from England in 1735.

1735:- – Start of war between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo–Turkish War, 1735–1739).

1735: Start of war between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1735–39)).

1736                           – Nadir Shah deposes the last Safavid ruler Tahmasp II.and founds the short-lived Afsharid dynasty.

1737                           — Marathas almost sack Delhi Under Baji Rao, they reach and loot the suburbs before retreating.

1737: Entry of Austria into (Russo-Turkish War (1735–39)) against Ottoman Empire.

1738: Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.

1739                           — Nadir Shah sacks Delhi

1739                           : Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacks the Mughal capital of Delhi in India. and carries off the Peacock Throne. In Ottoman Empire Austria signs the separate Belgrade Treaty and Russia signs the Treaty of Nissa to end Russo-Turkish War (1735–39)

1739                           -56– Safdar Jang in Avadh Saadat Khan’s nephew succeeds him as second Nawab of Avadh, by heredity and through strong local support that lasted through many vicissitudes, with only nominal Mughal approval; Nawal Rai, a Kayastha, is his right-hand man

1740: Shaykh ibn Abdul Wahhab starts his movement in Najd, Arabia.

1741: Ahmed ibn Said becomes Sultan of Oman and Zanzibar and attempts to build a strong navy.

1744                           : Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the al-Saud dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, founder of the Wahhabi movement in Nejd.

1746: Muhammed ibn Saud establishes the Saudi dynasty near Riyadh.

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1747                           –Ahmed Shah Abdaliestablished Afghan rule in Afghanistan.

1748                           — Ahmad Shah Abdali is defeated Nadir Shah’s heir in the east attacks Delhi, is defeated near Sirhind; this is the Mughal empire’s last victory

1748                           Death of Niẓām al-Dīn Sihālvī Farangī Maḥallī

1748: Nadir Khan is assassinated. His family is unable to continue his dynasty.

1749                    Ibadi Muslims establish the kingdom of Oman, run by the Al Bu Said dynasty

1750                    Abd Wahab preaches in Arabia a return to Ibn Hanbal (strict obedience to the Koran and the Hadith)

1750s — Ahmad Shah Durrani begins his rule, consolidating and enlarging Afghanistan while also governing much of India. But peace will be the exception over the next 100 years, as local leaders fend off Persian and Sikh invasions and fight amongst themselves.

1751                           – Karim Khan, of the Zand dynasty, briefly restores stability

1752                    The Sunni family Al Sabah seizes power in Kuwait, a principality of the Ottoman empire

1752: Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.

1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo. Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.

1754                           – In Ottoman Empire death of Mahmud Iand accession of OsmanIII.

1754                           -75—Reign of  Shuja ud-Daulah in Avadh The reign of the third Nawab of Avadh; he constructs great buildings, consolidates a tolerant pluralistic culture in Avadh, tries to protect the Mughal Emperor; but loses big at Buxar.

1754: The French General Dupleix leaves India. France loses the contest for control of Indian trade to the British.

1755: Division of the Mataram Sultanate, Indonesia, the last major independent Muslim state in Java before Dutch colonisation.

1756– British fortify Calcutta To deter French attack, the British fortify Calcutta;  the new Mughal governor, or ‘nawab’, of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, attacks and takes the city, imprisons officers (in ‘Black Hole of Calcutta’ episode)

1756: Anglo-French wars in India and America (1756-63). The British are victorious over the French.

1757            Sirajud Dawla defeated and Calcutta occupied by British forces. (January 2).

1757                           — battle of Plassey Clive comes north from Madras and retakes Calcutta; he then defeats Siraj ud-Daulah at Plassey through Mir Jafar’s treachery; Mir Jafar becomes a puppet nawab

1757                           – In Ottoman Empire death of Osman IIIand accession of MustafaIII.

1757                           -8– Ahmad Shah Abdali returnsThe Afghan prince Ahmad Shah Abdali (or Durrani) invades Delhi and is declared Emperor of Delhi; he sacks Delhi and Mathura.

1758: The Industrial Revolution in England gains momentum, fueled by the loot from Bengal.

1759                           -1806– reign of Shah Alam II Shah Alam II has a long reign, but it’s full of suffering; he’s blinded by Ahmad Shah Abdali.

1760                    Abd Wahab allies with Muhammad Ibn Saud of Diriyya and founds the Saudi state in Arabia

1760:                   Karim Khan establishes the Zand dynasty in Persia.

1761                    Battle of Panipat.Ahmed ShahAbdalicame toIndiaat the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi andsmashed risingMaratha empirepower in the Third Battle of Panipat
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1762: Death of Shah Waliullah of Delhi, leading reformer.

1763: Britain exploits the fragmentation of India and begins to absorb Mughal territories.

1763: The Treaty of Paris. The French give up their interests in India and America…

1764– battle of Buxar The English defeat Shuja ud-Daulah, nawab of Avadh, and his allies Mir Qasim (successor of Mir Jafar in Bengal) and the Mughal Emperor, in heavy fighting in Baksar (SW Bihar); Shuja ud-Daulah retains Avadhi loyalty, including support of local Rajput chieftains, but loses chunks of territory to British and must pay huge sums

1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya, ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.

1764: The British starve the Begums of Oudh, India, to surrender their jewels..

1765: The British wage a brutal campaign against the Afghans of Rohilla in India..

1767: The First Mysore War (1767-68). Tippu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali force the British to sue for peace..

1768: Start of the war between Ottoman Empire-Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) ) and defeats of Ottoman land armies at various battles.

1770: Burning of the Ottoman fleet at Naval Battle of Chesma by a Russian fleet that has come from Baltic Sea..

1771: Conquest of the Crimean Peninsula by Russian forces and the end of Ottoman dominance over Khanate of Crimea.

1772– British assume diwani of Bengal. East India Company officially takes on, by the Mughal Emperor’s farman, its previously covert role as revenue collector and administrator of Bengal

1772– first ‘Resident’ (in Avadh) The British send a Resident to the Avadh court to represent them; this marks the start of their system of indirect rule

1773                           – Death of Ahmed Shah Abdali.

1774:                   In Ottoman Empire death of Mustafa III and accession of Abdul Hamid I. Defeat of the Ottoman armies by Russians. Signing of the Treaty of Kuçuk Kainarji to end the Ottoman-Russian war (Russo-Turkish War (1768–74)). Khanate of Crimea nominally gained independence but in fact became a dependency of Russia.

1774?         Accession of Abdul Hamid I as Sultan of Turkey..

1775                           -97– Reign of  Asif ud-Daulah in Avadh The reign of the fourth Nawab of Avadh; he shifts his court to Lucknow, which becomes ‘the first city in India of its day’ as a cultural center, but increasingly politically isolated by British tactics

1779                           – Signing of Aynalikavak AccordbetweenOttoman EmpireandRussia.

1779: Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925.

1779: Signing of Aynalikavak Accord between Ottoman Empire and Russia.

1779?        France defends Senegal West Africa against British attack.

1780: The Second Mysore War. Tippu Sultan defeats the British at the Battle of Pollipur.

1781: George Washington defeats General Cornwallis at the Battle of Saratoga. Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown, retires to England, is hired by the East India Company, and is sent to battle Tippu Sultan of Mysore.

1783                           End of Kalhora rule in Sind.

1783                    The Sunni family Al Khalifah seizes Bahrein from Iran and conquers Qatar

1783:                    Russia occupies and annexes the Crimean Peninsula and ends the rule of Khanate of Crimea.

1785                    Kwajah Mir Dard, Indian Urdu poet and mystic, dies. (January 3)

1785                                Kara Mahmud Bushati, chief of Albanian tribe based in Shkodėr, attacks Montenegrin territory; subsequently named governor of Shkodėr by Ottoman authorities.

1785                    Ali Burzi Pasha of Libya massacres hundreds of Jews

1787                           1788– Ghulam Qadir in Delhi The Afghan chieftain invades Delhi, is driven out, returns the next year, blinds the emperor Shah Alam and practices other cruelties; the Marathas hunt him down and kill him, reinstate Shah Alam

1787                    The Ottomans restore central government control over Egypt

1787: Death of Shaykh ibn Abdul Wahhab of Arabia.

1787: In Ottoman Empire start of war against Austria and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)). Death of Sultan Abdulhamid I and accession of Selim III.

1788                           Abdul Rahman ibn Sori (1762-1829), a Fulani prince, is kidnapped and sold into slavery. Also known as the “Prince of Slaves,” he is later freed by President John Quincy Adams after spending nearly forty years of enslavement in Mississippi.

1788                    Bashir II, a Maronite, is elected governor of Ottoman Lebanon

1789                    The new Moroccan ruler Yazid massacres Jews in Tetouan

1789: The Third Mysore War (1789-91). Cornwallis forces Tippu Sultan to cede half of his Territory; takes Tippu’s children as hostage.Beginning of the French Revolution.

1790                           : Moors from Spain are reported to be living in South Carolina and Florida. 1807:  United States Congress prohibits the importation of slaves into America after Jan. 1, 1808. Yarrow Mamout, an African Muslim slave, is set free in Washington, D.C., and later becomes one of the first shareholders of the second chartered bank in America, the Columbia bank. Yarrow may have lived to be more than 128 years old, the oldest person in American history. Two portraits of Yarrow done by well known artists are on public display. The first, painted by Charles W. Peale in 1819 was done when Yarrow was 100 years old. It hangs in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. A second portrait completed by James Simpson in 1828, almost a decade later, can be seen in the Peabody Room at the Georgetown Public Library, Washington D.C.. .

1791:                   Signing of the Treaty of Sistova that ends the war between Austria and Ottoman Empire.

1792                    War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)) ends with signing of the Treaty of Jassy..

1793                    Selim III issues a set of New Regulations for the Ottoman Empre, providing for establishment of a military corps based on European models, reforming economic regulations by curbing the abuses of foreign berats, and revising the tax system.

1793                    The British Permanent Settlement Act imposes feudal landlords upon Bengal.

1794                    Mohammad Khan Qajar kills the last Zand shah and founds the Qajar dynasty, restoring stability to Iran after half a century of instability.

1797                    Death of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the Shah of Persia. Russia occupied Dagestan..

1798- 1801 Egypt is conquered by Napoleon.

1798 — The French, seeking to control the fastest route from Europe to India, launch a military expedition to Egypt under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. The expedition turns into a disaster, as British warships follow the French and destroy their fleet, leaving the French stranded in Egypt.

1798                    Landing of the armies of French Republic under the command of Napoleon Bonapartein Ottoman Province of Egypt. Defeat of theOttoman provincial army of Mamluks atBattle of Pyramids. Defeat andburning of French Fleet at naval Battle of Aboukirby theBritishfleetunderAdmiral Lord Nelson. Alliance of Ottoman Empire –Great Britain –RussiaagainstFrance..

1798-1814– Reign of  Saadat Ali Khan in Avadh The reign of the fifth Nawab of Avadh, who is the British choice rather than that of the previous Nawab; he duly and lavishly rewards them; Awadh becomes a prime recruiting ground for Company troops and officials (who get special legal privileges)

1799            Britain joins the Russo-Turkish alliance. (January 2)

1799            Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners.

1799                    Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans. Battle of Buxor. The British defeat the combined armies of Oudh, Bengal and Delhi.

1799                           — death of Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan dies defending Seringapatam.

1799                           : Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans. Battle of Buxor. The British defeat the combined armies of Oudh, Bengal and Delhi.

1799                    Defeat of the French expeditionary force from Egypt underNapoleon BonaparteatSiege of Acreby the Ottoman defenders andretreat of the French back to Egypt..Khoqanddeclaredindependent Islamic State. Death of  Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Kingdomof MysoreinIndia. By the end of this century, global Muslim populationhad grown to 12 per cent of the total.

1799                    Napoleon corresponds with Tippu Sultan of Mysore and the Sultan of Oman about an invasion of India.

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