16th Century

1400                          In the Burji Mamluks empire, The Mamluks lost Syria which was occupied by Amir Timur.

1400                          al-Umawi.

1400                      Temur Qutlugh dies and is succeeded by Shadi Beg.

1400                         Bayazid I lays siege to Constantinople.

1400                         CE, 802 A.H Mali slowly weakens. Berber’s take over the trade and learning centers of Timbuktu and Walata.

1400                         The Burji Mamluks lose Syria to Tamerlane.

1400                          Islam reaches the Philippines.

1401                         Timur offers peace to the people of Damascus. (January 3)

1401                          In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Timur Qutluq, the ruler, installed by Amir Timur. accession of Shadi Beg.

1401                          Timur defeats the Mamlukes of Egypt. Damascus surrenders to the Tatars. Timur sacks Baghdad.

1402                          Parameswara establishes the Sultanate of Malacca (Malaysia) and later embraces Islam.

1402                          – 1413The Interregum. A period of uncertainty and struggle for the Ottomans.

1402                          Timur defeats Bayazid I at the Battle of Ankara.Sulaiman I becomes the Ottoman sultan. Sultan Iskander Shah expels the Thais from Malaya.

1402                          –1403       Beyazid I is defeated at the Battle of Ankara and taken captive by Tamerlane. An interregnum period begins when the sons of Beyazid I compete for the Ottoman throne..

1402                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Defeat of Bayazid I at the battle of Ankara, taken captive Amir Timur.

1402                          Ottomans move their capital from Asia Minor to Edirne (Adrianople) in Europe, signaling their intention to become a major European power.

1402                          Sulaiman I becomes the Ottoman sultan. Sultan Iskander Shah expels the Thais from Malaya.

1403                           Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.

1403                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid ascended the throne

1404                          Timur embarks on an expedition to China.

1405                          In the Timurids empire, Death of Amir Timur, succession of his son Shah Rukh

1406                          –1414Al-Musta’in, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1406                          Death of Ibn Khaldun, a famous Arab historian best-known for his work al-Muqaddima .

1406                          Sultan Sikander Shah of Malaysia accepts Islam.The great Chinese Admiral Zheng Yi (commonly known as Admiral Ho), a Muslim, sails to Malaya, Indonesia, India, Persia, Yemen, East Africa and the Cape of Good Hope with a fleet of 50 great ships.

1407                          In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Shadi Beg, installation of Faulad Khan by the king maker Edigu.

1409                          Shah Rukh, heir to Timurlane, occupies Samarqand..

1410                          In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Faulad Khan, installation of Timur.

1410                          Kara Yusuf establishes the Kara Kuyunlu kingdom around Tabriz, Persia. Death of Gaysu Daraz, Sufi shaykh of the Deccan, India

1411                          Sultan Iskander Shah of Malaya visits China at the invitation of the Chinese Emperor. Prince Mehmet begins the reconsolidation of the Ottoman Empire after the disastrous defeat in the Battle of Ankara.

1412                          Al-Qalasadi

1412                          In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Timur, installation of Jalaluddin. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Nasiruddin Faraj, succession of Al Muayyad.

1413                            In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Jalaluddin, installation of Karim Bardo.

1413                          Interregnum period ends andMehmed Ibecomes Sultan.

1413                          Sultan Mehmed I restores the Ottoman Empire.

1414                            In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo, installation of Kubak Khan.

1414                          –1441Al-Mu’tadid II, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1414                          -51– the SAYYIDS..

1415                          The Portuguese capture Ceuta in Morocco.

1416   Kebek Khan is deposed in favor of Yeremferden, the brother of Karim Berdi and Jalal ad-Din khan.

1416                          In the Golden Horde Empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan, installation of Jahar Balrawi. Deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of Chaighray.

1419   Yeremferden is assassinated; control of the Horde is split between Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad.

1419   Edigu is assassinated by Olugh Mokhammad, who assumes his place as Khan, re-uniting it with the Golden Horde..

1419                          In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.

1419                          Yeremferden is assassinated; control of the Horde is split between Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad.

1420                            Abu Said Othman is assassinated and succeeded by Abdul Haq, his infant son.

1420                             Qara Yusuf dies and is succeeded by his son, Qara Iskander.

1420                          Dawlat Berdi captures Sarai and expands his sphere of influence beyond the Crimean Peninsula.[1]

1420                          In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by Daulat Bairawi.

1420                          Shah Rukh consolidates his hold on Persia.

1420                          Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Yusuf; succession of his son Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said Othman; succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.

1421                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad I; accession of his son Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Al Muayyad, succession of Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Death of Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad overthrown by Amir Barsbay.

1422                          Murad II lays unsuccessful siege to Constantinople.

1423                            Baraq defeats Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad and takes control of the Horde. Olugh Mohammad flees to Lithuania.

1424                            The Hafsids come to power.

1424                           In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi, succession of Berk. In Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy Algeria. This state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.

1424                          Death of Sultan Iskander Shah of Malaya.

1425                          Tangier in Morocco, captured by the Portuguese.

1425                          In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declare his independence in the western part of Siberia,

1427                             With the assistance of Vytautas the Great, Olugh Mohammad and Dawlat Berdi defeat and kill Baraq.

1427                          In the Golden Horde empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh Muhammad who captured power for the second time.

1428                          The Wattasids become regents for the Marinids in Morocco

1430                          Spread of Islam to the island of Ternate and surrounding areas of Maluku (the Moluccas), Eastern Indonesia.

1430                          In about 1430 the ruler of Melaka (Malacca) officially adopts Islam following connections with Sumudra. Most of the small kingdoms in east Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula also adopt Islam.

1430                          Suggestions of Muslim Chinese communities being established in the Malay Peninsula, in Java, and in the Philippines.

1430                          In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarazm.

1430                          The Portuguese acquire the technology to sail against the wind from the Venetians.

1431                          Death of Mullā Fanārī

1432                           Dawlat Berdi is assassinated and Hacı I Giray conquers the Crimea, founding the Crimean Khanate.

1432                          Portuguese captain Diaz sails around Cape Bajador in West Africa.

1434                          –Abdul Farisdies after forty years of rule and is succeeded byAbu Abdullah Muhammad.

1434                          Death of Shah Rukh. Persia disintegrates. The Kara Kuyunlu and Aq Kuyunlu expand their territories.Ulugh Bey of Farghana (Uzbekistan) authorizes the construction of an observatory in Samarqand.

1434                          –Kara Osmandies and is succeeded byAli Beg.

1434                          –Qara Iskandaris deposed in favor of his brother, Jahan Shah.

1434                          –Abdul Farisdies after forty years of rule and is succeeded byAbu Abdullah Muhammad.

1434                          Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Deposition of Qara Iskandar; installation of his brother Jahan Shah. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Qara Othman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Death of Abul Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.

1435                          CE, 838 A.H Songhai’s prince declares Gao’s independence from Mali.

1435                          Abu Abdullah Muhammad is deposed in favor of Abu UmarOthman.

1435                          In Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power captured by Abu Umar Othman.

1436                          Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press. Unlike their embrace of paper, the Muslims outlawed the use of printing presses. Other cultures forthwith became better informed.

1437                          –Olugh Mokhammadis defeated by Sayid Ahmad I, who takes control of the Horde.

1438                          In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali Beg overthrown by his brother Hamza.

1438                            Ali Beg is overthrown by his brother, Hamza.

1438                          Barsbay dies and his son, Jamaluddin Yusuf, is prevented from taking power in a coup orchestrated by Saifuddin Gakmuk.

1438                          In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister
Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali Beg overthrown by his brother Hamza.

1438                          Olugh Mohammad founds the Khanate of Kazan.

1439                          In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from Sarai and found the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.

1439                          , Deposition of Qara Iskandar; installation of his brother Jahan Shah.

1440                          Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Hamza overthrown by Jahangir a son of Ali Beg.

1441                          –1451Al-Mustakfi II, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1441                          First slave raid by the Portuguese in southern Morocco directed against Muslims.

1441                          In the Golden Horde empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.

1443         After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.

1443                          The Portuguese capture the island of Tristao off the coast of West Africa, later to gain notoriety in the Atlantic slave trade.

1444 –                       TheAnti-Ottoman League of Lezhein Albaniais formed byScanderbeg.Murad IIvoluntarily abdicates from his throne in favor of his sonMehmed IIafter the former’s defeat at the hands of crusaders at theBattle of Varma.

1444                          The Battle of Varna. Sultan Murad II defeats Polish and Hungarian armies who are unable to stop the advance of Ottoman armies.

1444           At Lezha the Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.

1444                          -48– Alam Shah

1444                          TheAnti-Ottoman League of LezheinAlbaniais formed byScanderbeg.Murad IIvoluntarily abdicates from his throne in favor of his sonMehmed IIafter the former’s defeat at the hands of crusaders at theBattle of Varma.

1446                          Murad II reclaims the throne.

1446                          In the Timurids empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of Ulugh Beg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its vassal.

1447                          In the Golden Horde empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.

1448                          The Ottomans are victorious at the Second Battle of Kossova.Serbiais annexed andBosniais made avassal.

1449              Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.

1449                          In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the Timurids empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul Latif.

1450                          In the Timurids empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif, accession of Abu Said..

1451                          –1455Al-Qa’im, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1451                          -1489– Bahlul Lodi

1451                          -1526– the LODIS

1451                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Murad II; accession of his son Muhammad II..

1451                          Mehmet II becomes Ottoman Sultan. Shaykh Rahmat converts the Majapahit ruler (Indonesia) Raja Kertawijaya to Islam. Islam spreads rapidly in Java.

 

1453                          The Byzantine capital of Constantinople falls to Sultan Mehmed II. (Mehmet II) The Ottomans change its name to Istanbul and rebuild the newly established capital of their empire.

1453                             Jahangir dies and is succeeded by his son, Uzun Hassan.

1453                          –Gakmukdies and is succeeded by his son,Fakhruddin Othman,who is then overthrown bySaifuddin Inal.

1453                          Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor. Mehmed II commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (TurkishFatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444                    to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) , ) change its name to Istanbul and rebuild the newly established capital of their empire— into one of the cultural capitals of Islam

1453                          Gakmuk dies and is succeeded by his son, Fakhruddin Othman, who is then overthrown by Saifuddin Inal.

1454                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey..

1455                          –1479Al-Mustanjid, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1455                          The Venetians sail to the delta of the Gambia River.

1456                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia..

1456                          Mehmet II captures Athens, Greece.The Portuguese arrive at the mouth of the Gambia River.

1456                          Wallachia is made a vassal

1458                          The Portuguese occupy the fortress of al Qasr, Arzila town

1459                          Küchük Muhammad dies and is succeeded by his son, Mahmud.

1459                          Fall of Smederevo liquidates last remnant of independent Serbian state.

1460                          King Alfonso of Portugal authorizes Fernao Gomes to explore the western coast of Africa.

1461                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.

1462                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Albania.

1463                          Mehmet II conquers Bosnia. Mosque of Sultan Mehmet II constructed in Istanbul.

1464                          868 A.H Songhai begins conquering neighbors under leadership of Sunni Ali, a Muslim. Gao becomes Songhai’s capital. After Sunni Ali died, his son, a non-Muslim, takes over

1465                          Khushqadam dies and is succeeded by his son, Saifuddin Yel Bey, who is then deposed by Temur Bugha.

1465                             Maxmud founds the Astrakhan Khanate after he is deposed by his brother, Akhmat Khan.

1465                          Arabs riot and massacre more than 1 thousand Jews in Fes, Morocco

1465                          end of the Marinid dynasty in Morocco, replaced by the Wattasids

1465                          Death of al Jazuli, Sufi Shaykh in Morocco.

1465                          In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession of his son Khan Ahmad. In Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule. Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.

1467                           11 November Uzun Hassan, leader of Aq Quyunlu defeats Jehan Shah, leader of the Kara Quyunlu. Jehan Shah dies in the Battle of Chapakchur ; end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Kara Koyunlu is annexed.

1467                          Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Jahan Shah, end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Khushqadam, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk General Temur Bugha.

1468             Skanderbeg (62) of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.

1468                          Abul Khayr dies and is succeeded by his son Haidar Sultan..

1468                           The Timurids are defeated at the Battle of Qarabagh. Ak Koyunlu then becomes the masters of Persia and Khorasan.

1468                          Temur Bughais deposed byQaitbay.

1468                          Abul Khayr dies and is succeeded by his son Haidar Sultan.

1468                          Albanian warrior prince Skenderbeg dies. Within a decade of his death, Ottomans overrun most of Albania.

1468                          In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Uzun Hasan defeated the Timurids at the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and Khurasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured by the Mamluk General Qait Bay.

1469         In the Timurids empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration of the Timurid state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara came to power and he ruled during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.

1471                                          Portugal seizes Tangiers from Morocco

1472                          In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.

1472                          In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.
1473         In the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia; Persians defeated.

1473                                           Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II defeats the Aq Kuyunlu Sultan Uzun Hassan at the Battle of Otluk Beli.. Portuguese captain Sequira sails to Benin,

1473                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia; Persians defeated.

1473                          Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II defeats the Aq Kuyunlu Sultan Uzun Hassan at the Battle of Otluk Beli.. Portuguese captain Sequira sails to Benin, Nigeria.

1474                          Death of ‘Alā’ al-Dīn al-Qūshjī

1474                                           Commercial town of Kedah, in Indonesia, becomes Muslim

1475                          In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Crimea. War against Venice. Tukey became the master of the Aegean Sea.

1478                   Krujė falls to Ottoman Turks; Shkodėr falls a year later. Subsequently, many Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining are forced to convert to Islam..

1478                                           Kara Quli, a descendant of Jehan Shah, flees to India and establishes the Qutub shahi dynasty near Hyderabad. Death of Uzun Hassan, Aq Quyunlu Sultan.Turmoil in western Persia.

1478                          Kara Quli, a descendant of Jehan Shah, flees to India and establishes the Qutubshahi dynasty near Hyderabad.Death of Uzun Hassan, Aq Quyunlu Sultan.Turmoil in western Persia.

1478                          Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Uzun Hasan, succession of his son Khalil.

1478                          –Uzun Hasandies and is succeeded by his son, Khalil ibn UzunHasan.

1479              Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.  (Albania,)

1479                                           Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Khalil overthrown by his uncle Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan.

1479                          –1497Al-Mutawakkil II, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1479                          Consolidation of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella.

1480                                           Akhmat Khanis assassinated and succeeded by his son,SaidAhmad II.

1480                                           In the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.

1480                                           The Ottomans capture the island of Rhodes.

1480                          Akhmat Khanis assassinated and succeeded by his son,SaidAhmad II.

1480                          In the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.

1480                          The Ottomans capture the island of Rhodes.

1481                             Said Ahmad II is overthrown by his brother Murtada..

1481                                           In the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid II.

1481                          Bayazid II becomes Ottoman Sultan.

1481                          In the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid II.

1481                          Mehmed II dies and is succeeded by Beyazid II. Cen Sultan rebels

1481                          Said Ahmad II is overthrown by his brother Murtada.

1482                         Death of ‘Alā’ al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

1482                          Ferdinand of Spain attacks al Hama.

1483                          Civil wars in Granada.Ferdinand Lagos Company chartered under Prince Henry.

1484                          The Portuguese appear at the delta of the Congo River

1485                          The Ottomans and Mamluk go to war

1487                          Portuguese sailor Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope.

1488                          Death of Khwāja Zāda (Khojazāda)

1488                          –Haider Sultandies and is succeeded by his nephew,ShaybaniKhan.

1488                          Moroccans invade the African kingdom of Mali

1488                                           In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.

1488                                           Malaga, one of the last Nasirid strongholds, falls to Castille.

1488                          Abu Umar Othman dies and is succeeded by Abu Zikriya Yahya.

1488                          In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.

1488                          In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.

1489                                           Adil Shah becomes Sultan of Bijapur, India

1489                                           In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.

1489                          -1517– Sikandar Lodi

1490                          CE, 895 A.H Askia Muhammad over throws Sunni Ali’s son and becomes king of Songhai declaring Islam as the state religion. Askia Muhammad encourages non-Muslims to convert and invites scholars to his country and his country becomes a city of learning.

1490                         Ferdinand lays siege to Granada, called Santa Fe (Holy Faith).

1490                          Askia Muhammad over throws Sunni Ali’s son and becomes king of Songhai declaring Islam as the state religion. Askia Muhammad encourages non-Muslims to convert and invites scholars to his countr

1490                          In Tunisia Abul Mumin is overthrown and Abu Zikriya Yahya retakes the throne.

1491                         The Ottomans and Mamluk make peace with no winner and no loser

1492                          Sultan Bayazid II takes Hungary. Lodhi Sultanate established in Delhi. Death of Abdur Rahman Jami, well known Farsi poet.

1492         .                Castile and Aragon capture Granada from the Arabs. Christians Ferdinand captures of city, 15, 000 Jews exiled from Granada, End of Arab rule in Spain. (January 2)

1493                          Abu Abdallah, commonly known as Boabdil, last emir of Granada, leaves Spain.Askiya Muhammed becomes Emperor of Songhay.

1493                          Croatian nobility annihilated at Battle of Krbava in Lika, opening way to Ottoman conquest of much of Croatia.

1493                          Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Yaqub. accession of his son,Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub.

1494                          At the Treaty of Tordesillas arranged by Pope Alexander VI, Portugal and Spain agree to divide up the world for conquest.

1495                         Turkomans of the White Sheep empire,  Baisonqur is overthrown by his cousin, Rustam ibn Maqsud.

1495                          Shaykh Putah introduces Islam into the Celebes islands and western New Guinea.

1496                          In the Burji Mamluks empire, Abdication of Qait Bay, succession of his son Nasir Muhammad

1496                          Vasco da Gama, sails around the Cape of Good Hope and with the help of Muslim navigator Ahmed ibn Majid, discovers route to Malabar, India.

1497                          –1508 Al-Mustamsik, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1497                          Maqsud is overthrown by his cousin, Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad.

1497                          Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Rustam overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation

1497                          Zahiruddin Babur loses Samarqand.CAskiya Muhammed moves the capital of Songhay to Gao on the Niger River.

1498                          Death of Ṣadr al-Dīn Dashtakī

1498                          In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad, power captured by Zahir Kanauh.
1499                          In the Uzbegs empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III.” In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the battle of Lepanto. off the coast of Greece in the Battle of Zonchio