14th Century

 

 

1303–1340Al-Mustakfi I , Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1309                             In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Taliku, accession of Kubak. In Granada,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)III overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.

1310                             In the Chughills empire, Kubak overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. In the Marinids empire, Abu Rabeah Sulaiman overthrown by Abu Said Othman. In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers Deccan.

1312                             In Tunisia, In Tunis Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani.
1313                             In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the Mongols repulsed. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Toktu, accession of his nephew Uzbeg.
1314                             In Kashmir, Rainchan an adventurer from Baltistan overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of Sadrud Din. In Granada, Abul Juyush overthrown by his nephew Abul Wahid Ismail.
1315                             In Tunisia, War between Bougie and Tunis, Lihani defeated and killed. Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis.
1316                             In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Khudabanda Ul Jaytu, succession of Abu Said. In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin, accession of Shahabuddin Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert.
1318                             In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Malik Kafur, deposition of Shahabuddin Umar, accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak. In the Chughills empire, Isan Buga overthrown by Kubak.
1320                             In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Qutbuddin Mubarak, usurpation of power by Khusro Khan a Hindu convert. Khusro Khan overthrown by Ghazi Malik. End of the rule of Khiljis. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran. In the Tughluqs empire, Ghazi Malik founds the rule of the Tughluq dynasty.
1321                             In the Chughills empire, Death of Kubak, succession of Hebbishsi who is overthrown by Dava Temur.
1322                             In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by Tarmashirin, who is converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz. The kingdom divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.
1324                             In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin.
1325                             In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq); accession of his son Muhammad Tughluq. In Granada, Assassination of Abul Wahid Ismail, succession of his son Muhammad IV. Assassination of Muhammad IV. Accession of his brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al
Tahir I, accession of Malik al Tahir II. In Bengal, With the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws. Ghiasuddin Bahadur and himself become’s the ruler of United Bengal.
1326                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Othman, succession of Orkhan. Orkhan conquers Bursa and makes it his capital.
1327                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicaea.
1329In the Tughluqs empire,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Deccan.
1330                             In the Chughills empire, Death of Tramashirin, succession of Changshahi. Amir Hussain establishes the rule of the Jalayar dynasty at Baghdad. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran and the state is again united, under him. In Bengal,Muhammad b Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargeon.
1331                             In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Said Othman, sucession of Abul Hasan. In Bengal, Annexation of Bengal by the Tughluqs.
1335                             In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Abu Said, power captured by Arpa Koun. In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Changshahi, accession of Burun.
1336                             In the Mongols II Khans empire, Arpa defeated and killed, succeeded by Musa. Birth of Amir Temur. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Amir Hussain, succession of Hasan Buzurg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks annex the state of Karasi. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Sonargeon assassinated by armour
bearer who captured power and declared his independence assuming the name of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
1337                             In the Mongols II Khans empire, The rule of Musa overthrown, Muhammad becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran empire, On the disintegration of the II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar. In the Muzaffarids empire, On the disintegration of the II Khan rule Mubarazud Din Muhammad established the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicomedia. In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids.
1338                 In the Mongols II Khans empire, Muhammad overthrown, succession of Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.
1339                 In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu Udyana Deva. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun Temur. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated and power is captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.
1340                             In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Kirman. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Isun Temur, accession of Muhammad.

1340                 –1341Al-Wathiq I, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1341                 –1352Al-Hakim II, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo
1341                             In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Uzbeg, succession of his son Tini Beg.
1342                             In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg overthrown by his brother Jani Beg.

 

1342                             Shams ud-Din Ilyas Shah (r.1342-57) takes power in Bengal, starting a series of dynasties that keep Bengal independent for two and a half centuries

1343                             In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.
1344                                         In the Mongols II Khans empire, Deposition of Sulaiman, succession of Anusherwan.
1345                             In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir II, accession of Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth century. In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur

1345                 The North African traveler Ibn Battuta reports having visited the Muslim sultanate of Samudra, a neighbor to the older port of Perlak, while en route to China ca. 1345.
1346                             In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kazan, accession of Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Bakr, succession of his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Death of Udyana
Deva, throne captured by Shah Mirza who assumed the name of Shah Mir, and rounded the rule of Shah Mir dynasty.
1347                             The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanids empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga.
1349                             In Kashmir, Death of Shah Mir, accession of his son Jamsbed. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria.
1350                             In the Sarbadaran empire, Revolt against Abdur Razaq. Power captured by Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Deposition of Fadal, succession of his brother Abu Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher.
1351                             In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Hasan, succession of Abu Inan. In the Tughluqs empire, Death ofProphet Muhammad (pbuh)Tughluq accession of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
1352                             In Algeria, The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said Othman is taken captive and killed.

1352                 –1362Al-Mu’tadid I, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1353                             End of the Mongol II Khan rule. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks acquire the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint. In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital there.
1354                             In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada, Assassination of Abu Hallaj Yusuf, succession of his sonProphet Muhammad (pbuh)V.
1356                             In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia.
1357                             In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Kulpa.
1358                             In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad;
accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah.
1359                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Orkhan, succession of Murad. In the Muzaffarids empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud. In Tunisia,
Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria. In the Marinids empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim. In Granada,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)V loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail.
1360                             In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja recaptures power. In the Chughills empire, Power captured by Tughluq Temur. In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said.
1361                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, Murad conquers a part of Thrace and establishes his capital at Demolika in Thrace. In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinids empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
1362                             In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20 years as many as 14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In Granada, Abu Said overthrown byProphet Muhammad (pbuh)V who comes to rule for the second time. In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin.

1362                 –1383Al-Mutawakkil I, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1365                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeat the Christians at the battle of Matiza, the Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.
1366                             In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan, succession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz.
1369                             Power captured by Amir Temur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Temur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid.
1370                             In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Temur.
1371                             In the Ottoman Turks empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory upto the Balkans annexed by the Turks.
1372                             In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad. .

 

1374                 In the Marinid Empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas.

1375                 Dimitrius, Count of Moscow, wins a victory over the Tatar Golden Horde.

1375                 In the Sarbadaran Empire, Deposition of Muhammad Aytimur, power captured by Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son Hussain.

1376                 In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin

1376                 The Golden Horde burns down Moscow.

1377                 In the Bahmanids empire, death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid.

1378                 In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his uncle Daud.
1379                 Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan.
1380                 In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Toktamish, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Temur’s empire, Amir Temur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Temur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.

1380     Timurlane begins his first campaign in Persia.Shaykh Awliya Karim al Maqdum introduces Islam into Mindanao, the Philippines.Kara Muhammed, leader of the Turkish tribe Kara Kuyunlu, establishes his kingdom near Mosul.

1381                 In Amir Temur’s empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of Qandhar.

1381     The Ottomans capture Bulgaria.

1383     –1386Al-Wathiq II, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1384                 In Amir Temur’s empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rayy and Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son Zainul Abdin. In the Marinids empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad.

1385     The Ottomans capture Thrace.

1386                 In Amir Temur’s empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea overrun. Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated. In the Marinids empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad.
1387                 In the Marinids empire,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to power for the second time.

1386                 In Amir Timur’s empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgeaoverrun. Subjugation of GilanandShirvan. Turkomans of the BlackSheep defeated. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Mustansir, successionof Muhammad.

1386     –1389Al-Mu’tasim, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1387     Timurlane invades Russia and destroys the power of the Golden Horde. Russia begins its long march towards political consolidation.

1387                 In the Marinid Empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbaswho comes to power for the second time.

1388                 InAlgeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. Inthe Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by hisgrandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.

1388                 In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
1389                 In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession- of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf.

1389     Bayazid I becomes the Ottoman sultan, defeats the Serbs at the Battle of Kosova.Death of Hafiz, one of the greatest of Farsi poets.Death of Bahauddin Naqshband, founder of the Naqshbandi Sufi tareeqa of Bukhara.

1389          Jun 15, The Serbs were defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. Lazar’s bones were placed in the monastery at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote “Elegy for Kosovo,” in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar. (Albania)

1389                 InOttoman EmpireMuradI fought theBattle of Kosovoagainst Christian army from Serbia,Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary and Wallachia. Murad I was assassinated atthe end of this battle and Yildirim Beyazid I became the new Sultan.

1389                 Death of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf.

1389     –1406Al-Mutawakkil I(restored), Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1389     Invading Ottoman armies defeat the Serbs at the battle of Kosovo Polje (the Field of Blackbirds), initiating five hundred years of Ottoman rule over the Balkans.1402

1390     A combined French and Genoese force attacks Mahdiya, Tunisia.

1390                 In the Tughluqsempire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his sonGhiasuddin. In theBurji Mamluksempire, The rule of the Burji Mamluk srounded by Saifuddin Barquq.

1390     Barqooq Sultan of Egypt defeats Mintash at Shaqhab. (January 2)

1391     Bayazid I attacks Constantinople.

1391                 In Amir Temur’s empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarids empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Temur. In Granada, Death ofProphet Muhammad (pbuh)V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II.
1392                 In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession ofMuhammad VI.

 

1392                 In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession of Muhammad VI.

1393                 Amir Temur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Temur. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II.
1394                 Amir Temur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.
1395                 In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Temur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde. Annexation of Iraq by Amir Temur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah. Accession of Muhammad Shah.
1396                 In the Amir Temur’s empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Temur.

1396     Bayazid defeats the Crusader armies at the Battle of Nicopolis.

1396                             InOttoman EmpireSultan Yildirim Beyazid I at theBattle of Nicopoli defeated an army of Christian Crusaders.

1397                 In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
1398                             In the Amir Timur’s empire, Campaign in India. In the MarinidEmpire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman

1398                Timur sacks Isfahan, Persia.

1398                 In the Amir Temur’s empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.
1399                 In the Amir Temur’s empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 8 per cent of the total..

1399                 Timur invades India, sacks Delhi, India. Castille sacks Tetuan, Morocco.