13th Century

1200                    – 1220 The height of the Turkish Khwarazm shahs. Their empire includes Turkestan and Persia.

1200                    18 Saladin’s brother al Malik alAdil sultan of Egypt and Syria.

1200                    Islam takes roots in Indonesia. Alauddin Muhammed becomes the Shah of Khwarazm.The Crusaders capture Valencia.

1200                    Morocco’s Muslim government grants special privileges to Jews in order to encourage trade and education.

1200                    the sufist Ibn Arabi preaches pantheism (only god exists)

1200                    -20The Empire of the Khwarazm Shah ‘Ala’ alDin Muhammad is at its height. He restores the Iranian monarchy, but disputes the authority of the caliph al Nasir.

1200                    Islam takes roots in Indonesia..The Crusaders capture Valencia.

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1200                  the Suhrawardi Sufis Shaikh Baha ud-Din Zakariya (1182-12678) of Multan introduces the Suhrawardi Sufi order, which becomes popular in what is now Pakistan

1201                  al-Tusi, Nasir

1201                    – 02 Plague in Egypt leads to a sharp decline in the population.

1201                    -1274 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Persian astronomer, mathematician and astrologer who worked at the Maragha Observatory. He introduced the ‘Tusi couple’, allowing Islamic scholars to greatly improve ptolomeic models of planetary motion.

1201                    The Latin Crusaders sack Zara, a Christian city on the Adriatic.

1202                    Famine hits Egypt. Egypt will not recover until 1204.The Fourth Crusade begins. Crusaders organize themselves and agree to meet in Venice. When they are unable to pay for transport, they agree to conquer outlying territories on the behalf of the Byzantine emperor.

1202                          ash-Shaykh Abu Ja‘far, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Idris b. Ḥusayn b. Qāsim b. ʿĪsā al-Ḥillī al-ʿIjlī  (5431148 – 5981202) Shi‘ah jurist.

1202                      Death of theGhuridSultanGhias ud Din; accession of Mahmudof Ghurid.

1202                    -04Fourth Crusade leads to the establishment of a Latin emperorship in Constantinople.

1202                    Bakhtiar Khilji conquers large parts of Bengal. Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad; accession of Mu’izz al-Din.

1202                    The Delhi Sultanate is established.

1203                    Death of Nizami, well known Farsi poet.

1203                    -27 Temujin known as Genghiz Khan after 1206 establishes the Mongol empire in Chinese Central Asia.

1204                      Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.

1204                    Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders. The JewishArab physician, philosopher and religious teacher Maimonides from Cordoba dies in Fustat near Cairo.

1204                    Crusaders, irritated at treatment of the Byzantine government, capture and sack Constantinople, destroying priceless artifacts and stealing relics. They establish a Latin ruler.

1204                       The Crusaders take Constantinople. Sack of the city.

1204                    Death of Maimonides, a great Jewish philosopher, jurist and physician. He lived most of his life in Islamic Spain and wrote in both Arabic and Hebrew. His writing marks the zenith of the Judeo-Arabic tradition.

1204                    Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.

1204                    The Crusaders, led by Dondolo of Venice, sack Constantinople and loot its treasures.Johan Shah, ruler of Sumatra, accepts Islam.

1205                    The Turkoman Kara Kitai defeats Mohammed Ghori.

1206 Temujin declared “Emperor within the Seas,” the Khan of Khans among the steppes tribes. He unites Mongola and takes the title “Genghis Khan.”

1206                    Former slave, Qutb-ud-din Aybek, captures India from the Ghorids and establishes the Slave Dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi. Genghis Khan becomes the leader of the united Mongol tribes at an assembly in Qaraqorum.

1206                    Temujin is acknowledged as supreme chief of the Mongols and receives the title Genghiz (Chingizl Khan.

1206                    -10  Qutb alDin Aybak, general of the Ghurid Mu’izz alDin, establishes the sultanate of Delhi. (“Slavekings”, until 1290).

1206                    Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutbu l-Din Aibak crowned king in Lahore. Tibetan Expedition of Islamic Bengal.

1206                    Genghiz Khan becomes the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.The assassins murder Muhammed Ghori.The Delhi sultans advance towards Bengal.

1206                    Temujin is acknowledged as supreme chief of the Mongols and receives the title Genghiz (Chingizl Khan.

1208                    Venice accords Sultan al’Adil of Egypt trading privileges. Venice and the Ayyubids of Aleppo establish joint trading rights.

1209                    Death of the theologian Fakhr alDin al-Razi, defender of theSunna and of the methods of alAsh’ar in Herat. Death of the Persian poet Nizami of Ganja, important author verse romances.

1210                    -36– Iltutmish Qutb ud-Din Aibak dies, and Iltutmish takes power.  When his governor in Bengal rebels (1213), he puts down the rebellion (1227) and obtains formal recognition by the ‘Abbasid Caliph. He patronizes Khvajah Qutb ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki (d.1237) of the Chishti order, and other Sufis. He seeks to balance the power of the “Turks” and “Tajiks” among his nobles. He also promotes the career of his promising daughter, Raziyya.

1210                    -36Iltutmish Qutb ud-Din Aibak dies, and Iltutmish takes power.  When his governor in Bengal rebels (1213), he puts down the rebellion (1227) and obtains formal recognition by the ‘Abbasid Caliph. He patronizes Khvajah Qutb ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki (d.1237) of the Chishti order, and other Sufis. He seeks to balance the power of the “Turks” and “Tajiks” among his nobles. He also promotes the career of his promising daughter, Raziyya.

1210                    Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan MahmUd, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.

1211                    Altumish ascends the throne of Delhi.

1211                    End of theGhuridrule, their territories annexed by theKhawarzamShahs. In IndiaAram Shahoverthrown byIltutmish.

1212                    Battle of AI Uqab in Spain, end of the AI Mohad rule in Spain. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Al-Uqba. The AI Mohad Sultan An Nasir escapes to Morocco where he dies soon after. Accession of his son Yusuf who takes over title of AI Mustansir.

1212                    In early spring, 10,000 German children and later in June 20,000 French set off on the Children’s Crusade. Their leader, a fourteen-year-old shepherd boy named Stephen from Cloyes-sur-le-Loire, France, has vision of Christ and delivers a letter to the King of France. Stephen confronts the pope and chastises him for his lack of action in rescuing the Holy Land. The chagrined pope grants him permission. The horde of children set off for Palestine, expecting the Mediterranean Sea to part for them as the Red Sea did for Moses in Christian belief. When this miracle fails to happen, they are “generously” given free passage across the ocean–but the sailors take them captive and sell thousands of them into slavery in Muslim slave markets of northern Africa, leading to an ignominous end to the Children’s Crusade.Alfonso VIII of Castile expanded the Reconquista. King Sancho VII of Navarre won the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade. Peter II of Aragon defeats the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa

1212                    Peter II of Aragon defeats the Almohads in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Reconquista leads to the retreat of the Almohads from Spain (1225)

1212                    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Spain, end of the Almohad rule in Spain. The Almohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohad SultanProphet Muhammad (pbuh)an-Nasir escapes to Morocco.

1213                    Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir‘s death. Accession of his son Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph.

1213                    -1288 Ibn al-NafisDamascus-born physician who worked in Cairo hospitals and produced the first recorded explanation of pulmonary circulation. But the mechanism remained largely unknown until William Harvey’s work in the early 1600s.

1214                     In North Africa death of the AI Mohad ruler Al Nasir, accession of Al Mustansir. The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy the north eastern part of Morocco.

1215                    Genghiz Khan captures northern China; learns the use of gunpowder from the Chinese.

1216                    The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of Morocco. The AI Mohads suffer defeat by the Marinids at the battle of Nakur. The Banu Marin defeat the AI Mobads at the battle of Nakur.

1216                    THE SIXTH CRUSADE (1216-1218)

1216                    TheMarinidsunder their leader Abdul Haq occupy north easternpart of Morocco. TheAlmohadsuffer defeat by the Marinids at theBattle of Nakur.

1217                    The Fifth Crusade begins, lasting until 1222. The crusaders set out to conquer Egypt in order that its grain supplies and troops will not be available to Muslim forces, who are becoming increasingly organized and centralized under a single ruler.

1217                    The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate Morocco. In the battle of Sibu the Marinids suffer defeat; their leader Abdul Haq is killed and they evacuate Morocco.

1218                    A Mongol army under ?? invades Turkestan (Semirechye “Seven Rivers”). The KhwarazmShah ‘Ala’ alDin Muhammad hads the envovs of Genghiz Khan killed in Otrar on the Jaxartes.

1218                    Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Adil, accession of AI Kamil. The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez.

1218                    Genghis Khan captures Persian empire.

1218                    Mongol merchants arrive at the Khwarazm city of Otrar. Suspicious of the traders, the governor of Otrar has them killed.

1218                    -21 Invasion of Egypt by the Crusaders. They take Damietta and head for Cairo, but the sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, finally repels them.

1218                    -38 After the death of alMalik al’Adil, the Ayyubid empire divides into several states, AlMalik alKamil, Sultan of Egypt, initiates policy of coexistence with the Franks.

1218                    A Mongol army under ?? invades Turkestan (Semirechye “Seven Rivers”). The KhwarazmShah ‘Ala’ alDinProphet Muhammad (pbuh)hads the envovs of Genghiz Khan killed in Otrar on the Jaxartes.

1218                    Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Adil, accession of AI Kamil. The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez.

1218                    Genghis Khan captures Persian empire.

1218                    Mongol merchants arrive at the Khwarazm city of Otrar. Suspicious of the traders, the governor of Otrar has them killed.

1219                    onward– the MONGOLS!Under Chingiz (“Genghis”) Khan (c1165-1227), and then under his grandson Hulagu Khan (1217-65), the Mongols sweep down from Northern Asia and take Transoxiana and begin steadily conquering everything else in sight. Blood, ruin, pyramids of skulls, the worst catastrophe ever to hit the Muslim world.

1219                    The Mongols conquer Bokhora.Genghis Khan’s destruction of irrigation in Afghanistan leads to permanent deserts in the area.The port of Damietta falls to the Crusaders.

1219                    -20In retaliation, the Mongols invade Iran and the Middle East.

1219                    Genghiz Khan invades the territories of Shah Muhammed of Khorasan.

1219                    onward– the MONGOLS!Under Chingiz (“Genghis”) Khan (c1165-1227), and then under his grandson Hulagu Khan (1217-65), the Mongols sweep down from Northern Asia and take Transoxiana and begin steadily conquering everything else in sight. Blood, ruin, pyramids of skulls, the worst catastrophe ever to hit the Muslim world.

1219                    The Mongols conquer Bokhora.Genghis Khan’s destruction of irrigation in Afghanistan leads to permanent deserts in the area.The port of Damietta falls to the Crusaders.

1220                    Genghiz Khan devastates Central Asia.

1220                    Death of theKhwarezmidShahMuhammad II of Khwarezm,accession of  Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu.

1220                     – Mongol forces of Genghis Khan overrun Persia, which becomes part of the Ilkhanate, ruled by descendants of Genghis’ grandson Hulagu.

1220                      al-Maghribi

1221                    Genghiz Khan destroys Persia and Afghanistan.  Mongols take over the Iranian empire of Khwarizm.

1222                    The Fifth Crusade ends in failure. Egypt remains in Muslim hands.
1223                    Death of the Al Mohad ruler Muntasir, accession of Abdul Wahid. Death of Yusuf AI Mustansir, accession of Abdul Wahid in Morocco.. In Spain a brother of Yusuf declares his independence and assumes the title of AI Adil. In Spain AbuMuhammad overthrows AI Adil. AI Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows Abdul Wahid.

1222                    Death of the Zangi ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud Din Lulu.

1222                    Genghiz Khan returns to Mongolia.

1223                    Death of theAlmohadruler Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph, accessionof Abdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph. In Spain a brother of  Yusuf II,Almohad Caliphdeclares his independence and assumes the title of AlAdil (Abdallah, Almohad Caliph). In SpainAbu Muhammad of Spain overthrows Al Adil. Al Adil escapes toMoroccoand overthrowsAbdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph.

1223                    Ibn al Athir, celebrated historian, passes away.

1224                    Death of theAlmohadruler Abd al-Wahid I, accession of Abdallah, Almohad Caliph.

1225                    Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Nasir, accession of AI Mustansir.

1225                    –1226 Az-ZahirAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1225                    Death of the Abbasid Caliph An-Nasir, accession of Az-Zahir.

1226                    –1242 Al-MustansirAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1227                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of Mustasim. Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya who assumes the throne under the name of Al Mustasim.

1227                    THE SEVENTH CRUSADE (1227-1229)

1227                    Assassination of theAlmohadrulerAbdullah Adil, accession of his son, Yahya.

1227                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of Mustasim. Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya who assumes the throne under the name of Al Mustasim.
1229                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid AI Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. AI Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat.
1230                    End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.
1232                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Idris, accession, of Abdul Wahid II. Assassination of Al Mamun; accession of his son Ar-Rashid.

1227                    Genghis Khan dies on a campaign against the Tanguts. His sons divide the empire among themselves.

1228                    Emperor Frederick II leads the Sixth Crusade, comparatively the most successful venture into Muslim lands since the first crusade in the late eleventh-century.

1228                   the Hafsid dynasty takes over Tunisia

1228                    The Almohad rulers of Tunisia establish the Hafsid dynasty.

1229                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid AI Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. AI Mamun invades Morocco with Christian

1229                    The Almohads in Morocco renounce Tumart’s ideology and adopt the Sunni Maliki school of law

1229                    The crusaders of the Sixth Crusade surround Jerusalem. Frederick II gains Jerusalem by diplomacy.Ogadai, son of Genghis Khan, is elected khan two years after Genghis Khan dies. He rules until 1241.

1229                    Death of theAlmohadruler Yahya, accession of Idris I. TheAyyubid Al-Kamilrestores Jerusalemto the Christians.Abu Muhammadof Spaindies in Spain and is succeeded byAl Mamun of Spain. Al

1229                     Al-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world.

1229                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid AI Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. AI Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat.

1229                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid AI Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians.

1229                    The crusaders of the Sixth Crusade surround Jerusalem. Frederick II gains Jerusalem by diplomacy.Ogadai, son of Genghis Khan, is elected khan two years after Genghis Khan dies. He rules until 1241.

1230                    End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.1232

1230                    Sundiata starts consolidation of the Empire of Mali.

1231                    The Second Mongol Raids. Muslim cities are demolished.

1232                    Death of theAlmohadrulerIdris I, accession, of Abdul Wahid II.Assassination of Al Mamun of Spain; accession of his sonAr-Rashid of Spain.

1234                    Death of the Ayyubid ruler AI Kamil, accession of AI Adil.

1235                    CE, 632 A.H King of Mali defeats King Sumanguru and Mali replaces Ghana. This year marked the fall of Ghana.

1235                    Baba Fareed of Lahore becomes heads of the Chistiya order in India.

1236                    Castilla takes Cordoba from the Almohads 1238 Aragona takes Valencia from the Almohads

1236                    – 1255Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis, becomes the ruler of the Kipchak Khanate. He conquers Moscow, Hungary and Poland.

1236                    Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din Feroz Shah.

1236                    Death of Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti of Ajmer, the most celebrated awliya of the subcontinent.

1236                    -40– Sultana Raziyya Iltutmish’s death in 1236 is followed by a succession struggle. His daughter Raziyya seizes power and struggles to keep it, but is later driven from the throne and killed

1236                    Cordoba, capital of Muslim Spain, falls to the Crusaders. Razia rules as Queen of India.

1237                    Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.

1239                    as-Sayyid Muhyi ‘d-Din, Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillah ibn ‘Ali ibn Zuhrah al- Husayni al-Halabi (5661171–6361239)   Shi‘ah jurist.

1240                    End of the Empire of Ghana in Africa. The Kingdom of Mali absorbs it into its own political structure.

1240                    Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.
1241                    Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.

1240                    Death of Ibn al-‘Arabi (known as al-Sheikh al-Akbar ), a Sufi philosopher who was read from Spain to Sumatra, as far south as the Swahili coast and as far afield as modern-day Tatarstan.

1241                   Mongols take the Punjab.

1242                    Al Musta’sim becomes the 37th and the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.

1242                    Batu Khan establishes a Mongol kingdom (“The Golden Horde”) on the lower Volga River. The Mongols defeat the Seljuks of Rum.

1242                    –1258 Al-Musta’simAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1242                    accession of Al-Musta’sim.

1242                    Death of Muiz uddin  Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as Delhi Sultan. Death of the AI Mohad rules Abdul Wahid, accession of Abu Hasan. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.

1243                    Egyptians recapture Jerusalem. The Christian occupational forces flee or are slaughtered.

1243                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abdul Walid II, accession of
1244                    The Al Mohads defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.

1243                    Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor.

1244                    The Crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last time.

1244                    The Almohad defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.

1245                    THE EIGHTH CRUSADE (1245-1247)The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.

1245                    At the Council of Lyons, Christian Europe resolves to seek an alliance with the Mongols against the Muslims. A Franciscan priest, John de Plano Carpini, arrives at the Mongol court to seek military assistance.

1246                    Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession of Nasir ud Din Mahmud Shah.
1248                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.

1248                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.

1248                    Ferdinand III of Castilla conquers Sevilla, capital of the Almohads, and the Almohads are left with the state of Granada

1248                    Louis IX of France leads the Seventh Crusade.

1248                    Seville in Spain falls to the Christians.Ibn Ahmar starts the Nasirid dynasty in Granada.

1248                    -50 Invasion of Egypt by Louis IX, King of France, who is defeated and captured. Fall of the Ayyubid dynasty; replaced by the rule of the Mamluks.

1248                    Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.

1248                    Death of the Almohad ruler Abu al-Hasan as-Said al-Mutadid, ambushed in an attack to Tlemcen. Accession of Umar, Almohad Caliph.

1248                    Death of theAlmohadrulerAli, Almohad Caliph, accession of Umar, Almohad Caliph. Abu Said (??) attacks Tlemsen(??), but isambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.

1248                    Muslim control in Spain is reduced to the Kingdom of Granada.

1248                    Seville in Spain falls to the Christians.Ibn Ahmar starts the Nasirid dynasty in Granada.

1249                   the Mamlukes defeat the French in Egypt and capture the king of France

1249                    Louis IX takes the city of Damieta in Egypt.

1249                    The Seventh Crusade, directed at Egypt by the Franks, is beaten back.

1250                    The Alhambra is built in Granada

1250                   Portugal conquers all the land west of the Guadiana river from the Almohads

1250                    Saracens capture Louis IX in Egypt and ransom him to the crusaders.

1250                    Shajarat al Durr rules as Queen of Egypt.

1250                    The Mamluks of Egypt (Turkish “military slaves”) overthrow the sultan and install a woman, Shajar al­Durr, widow of a former sultan, as the new sultan, thus terminating the Ayyubid dynasty and starting the Mamluk dynasty, and she is forced to marry Izz al­Din Aybak and abdicate to him after just 80 days, while the Syrians under al Nasir reject her authority and declare their independence and obtain Jerusalem

1250                    The Mamluks, slave-soldiers, rise to power in Egypt.

1250                    The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof.

1250                      al-Samarqandi

1250                    Saracens capture Louis IX in Egypt and ransom him to the crusaders.

1250                    Shajarat al Durr rules as Queen of Egypt.

1250                    The Mamluk Turks, former slaves in the Ayyubid army, establish their dynasty in Egypt.

1250                    The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof.

1251                    Hulagu Khan becomes the Mongol lord of Persia and Central Asia.

1256                    The grandson of Genghis, Hulegu rules the Il Khanate. Its seat is in Persia.

1256                    Hulagu’s Mongol army destroy the Assassins’ castles

1256                      al-Banna

1257                    Shajar­al­Durr of Egypt is killed by the palace concubines after she murders Izz al­Din Aybak

1258                    Berke replaces his brother, Batu Khan as the ruler of the Kipchak Khanate. He converts to Islam.

1258                    The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustasim. End of the Abbasid rule. Fall of Baghdad, end of the Abbasid caliphate. The Mongol II-Khans under Halaku establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah. Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden Horde protests against the
treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraw his Contingent from Baghdad..

1259                    – c.1304 Maragha Observatory One of the top three observatories in the Islamic world, this was built in Maragha in modern-day Iran. Astronomy was highly valued, partly for accurately predicting prayer-times and the Islamic lunar month. Maragha had a library of 400,000 books and a school of astronomy.

1259                    the Mamluk commander Muzaffar Sayf­al­Din KutuzQutuz seizes power in Egypt after Shajar is murdered

1259                    Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of AI Mustamir.
1260                    Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. Baybars becomes the Mamluk Sultan.

1260                    Kutuz is assassinated and succeeded by his general al­Malik al­Zahir Rukn al­Din Baybars as leader of Mamluk Egypt that turns Egypt­Syria into the most powerful Islamic state

1260                      al-Farisi
1260                    Kublai Khan ascends the throne of China. Many capable Muslims work at the court of the Great Khan.

1260                    Roger Bacon wrote down the formula for gun powder”Saltpetre VII parts, V parts charcoal and V parts sulphur. …with such a mixture you will produce a bright flash and a thundering noise, if you know the trick”. Similar information was known to the Chinese. It was not long before warfare depended on gunnery, which Islam rejected as not chivalrous.

1261                    –1262 Al-Mustansir, Abbasid Caliph in Cairo

1261                    The Mamlukes of Egypt install Al Mustansir as the Abbasid Caliph in Cairo.The Mamluke, Zahir Baybars of Egypt, defeats a combined army of Mongols, Armenians and Crusaders at the Battle of Ayn Jalut.

1262                    Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the IndoPakistan sub-continent.

1266                    Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders invade Tunisia. Failure of the crusade.

1263                    Barka Khan defeats Halaku Khan  near River Tirak.(13 January)

1265                    Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.

1265                    Hulegu dies and is succeeded by his son Abaka, who kills Berke in battle and moves the capital to Tabriz thus accelerating the decline of Baghdad

1265                    The death of Hulegu. His successors include both Buddhists and Muslims

1266                    Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders invade Tunisia. Failure of the crusade.

1267                    Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Murtada seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade Morocco.  The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of Murtada; accession of Abu Dabbas.

1267                    Umar, Almohad Caliphseeks the help of the Christians,and the Spaniards invade Morocco.TheMarinidsdrive away theSpaniardsfrom Morocco. Assassination of Umar, Almohad Caliph;accession of Idris II, Almohad Caliph.

1268                    Muslims from Egypt capture Antioch, held by the Christians.

1268                     Baybars takes Antioch, which had been allied with the Mongols.

1269                    collapse of the Almohad dynasty in Algeria and rise of the Marinids in Morocco

1269                    Idris II, Almohad Caliphis overthrown by theMarinids, End of theAlmohad. The Marinids come to power in Morocco underAbu Yaqub
1269                    Abu Dabbas is overthrown by the Marinida, End of the Al Mohads. End of the rule of the AI Mohads in Morocco, the Marinids come to power in Morocco under Abu Yaqub.

1270                    King Louis IX of France dies of plague while on Crusade. His death leads quickly to the end of the Seventh Crusade.

1270                    Earliest record of a Muslim scholar with a Southeast Asian name teaching in Arabia, namely Masud al-Jawi, fl. 1270s–1310s

1270                    Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in Mali.

1271                    Marco Polo sets off with his father and uncle to visit the court of Kublai Khan–it is a twenty-four year trip.

1271                    prince Edward of England allies with Abaka’s Mongols but they are defeated by Baybars’ Mamluks

1272                    Death of Mohammed I ibn Nasr the founder of the Emirate of GranadaYaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle

1273                    Death of Jalal al-Din Rumi (known also as Mawlana ), the Persian Sufi and gifted poet famous for his passionate ecstasies. Rumi founded the Mevlevi tariqah movement of Sufism, characterized by highly formalized whirling dances.c. 1300

1274                    Death of Nasiruddin Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England.
1275                    Marco Polo enters the service of Kublai Khan.

1277                    Sultan Baybars defeats the Mongol armies at the Battle of Abulistan.

1277                    Death of Baybars.

1279                    Qalaun succeeds Kutuz as leader of Mamluk Egypt

1280                    Battle of Hims.

1281                    -1923 OTTOMAN ERA – Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire spread from Anatolia into north Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and eastern and southern Europe.Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia.

1283                    Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman.

1284                    Al-Mansuri  Qalawun hospital, CairoSpecialized institutions that treated disease for free and conducted research took root under Islamic rule, building on Roman efforts. The hospitals in Cairo and in Baghdad had wards for different illnesses. Clinicians took detailed case notes, which were collated into teaching manuals.
1285                    Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.
1286                    Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.

1289                     The mamluk sultan Qalawun takes Tripoli.

1289                    The Mamlukes captures Acre, last Crusader stronghold in Syria.

1290                    Turkish leader Firuz in Delhi founds the Khalji Dynasty.

1290                    Sultan Malik Shah rules in Sumatra.

1290                    End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E. most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.
1291                    Saadi.

1290                   Uthman, a Turkish frontier warrior, proclaims independence from the Seljuks in Anatolia.

1291                    Death of Iranian poet  Shaykh Saadi, well known Farsi poet.

1291                    the last Christian stronghold in Palestine (Acre) falls to the Mamluks

1291                    The sultan Khalil, son of Qalawun, takes Acre, putting an end to two centuries of Crusader presence in the Orient.

1291                    Death of Iranian poetSaadi.

1291                    Muslim armies capture Acre, the last Christian holdings in Palestine. This marks the end of successful crusades. Scots acknowledge English king as suzerain (Edward I). He oversees process of succession to the Scottish throne.

1292                    Marco Polo reports the Islamization of Ferlec (i.e., Perlak in North Sumatra), ca. 1292.

1296                    –Mongolruler Alauddin Ghazan Khanconverted to Islam.

1297                    The death of the first Muslim leader in Sumatra (Indonesia).

1299                            Assassination of Lajeen.

1299                    C.E. The earliest Ottoman state is formed in Anatolia, Turkey.

1299                    Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemcen, the capital of the Ziyyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 7 per cent of the total.

1299                    –MongolsinvadeSyria. TheMarinidsbesiege Tlemsenthe capitalof theZayanids. By the end of this century, global Muslim populationhad grown to 7 per cent of the total

1299                    Uthman becomes the first leader of the Ottoman state.