11th Century

1000                      The city of Timbuktu is founded. As traders settle there, they bring Islamic scholars with them. Islamic scholars spoke and wrote Arabic. West African tribes spoke many different languages and so Islam gave them one language to speak. Nearly every Muslim in Timbuktu learned to read and write. Learning Qur’an was important for West African Muslims.

1000                      Death of al-Muqaddasi, world-traveller and geographer, author of a ‘cultural geograpy’ of the earth.

1000                      Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including Ngeria, which served as a trading liaison between the northern and central regions of Africa.

1000                      Mahmud makes the first of seventeen raids into India. The Chinese use gunpowder to propel arrows.

1000                      Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria.

1000                      The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

1000                      -1008Although Muslim forces had reached Sind (northwest India) by 711, the invasions intensified in this later period, culminating in the military genius Mahmud of Ghaznah’s victory at Peshawar in 1008 over the army assembled by several Hindu rulers.

1000                      Chinese perfect the production and use of gunpowder.

1000                      Death of al-Muqaddasi, world-traveller and geographer, author of a ‘cultural geograpy’ of the earth.

1000                      Mahmud makes the first of seventeen raids into India. The Chinese use gunpowder to propel arrows.

1000                      The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

1001                      Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.

1001                      Mahmud starts campaigns to capture Peshawar, Bhera, Nagarkot, Tarain, Thaneshwar and Kanauj in India.

1002                      August 08, 1002Death of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus, on the way back from raiding the Rioja region.

1002                      Death of the philologist Ibn Jinni, who systematised Arabic grammar.

1003                      First persecutions by al—Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt, is destroyed.

1004                      Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa.

1004                      Mahmud captures Bhatiya.

1004                      Mahmud defeats Dawud, Fatimid ruler of Multan.

1005                      Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.

1006                      Mahmud defeats the Qarakhanids of Turkestan.

1008                                  Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.

1008                      Death of Badl al-Zaman al-Hamadham, founder of the literary genre of the maqÉma (tales of social satire in rhymed prose)

1008                      Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.

1009                      Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed.

1009                      Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returns over 200 captured fortresses to the Castilians in return for massive shipments of food for his army.

1010                      Central power of the Spanish Caliphate weakens. The Persian poet Firdawsi (935-1020) completes the national epic poem “Shahnameh” (Book of Kings). Considered to be one of the most influential and celebrated poets of Persia.

1010                      Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad II.

1010                      Al-Nasawi

1010                      Ferdowsi of Tus completes his versification of the Persian national epic of the ShÉhnÉma (‘Book of Kings’) which he dedicates to Mahmud of Ghazna.

1011                      In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.

1012                      Beginning of al-Hakim’s oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians. Decrees like having to wear black turbans, Christians having to wear a cross around their necks the length of a cubit and five “ratl”s in weight, Jews having to wear a wooden calf around their necks of the same weight,…

1012                      Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed.

1012                      Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands.

1012                      In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.

1013                      Death of al-Bāqillānī

1013                      Death of al-Baqillani, jurist and theologian of the school of al-Ash’ari.

1013                      Jews are expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova, then ruled by Sulaimann.

1015                      Earthquake in Palestine; the dome of the Dome of the Rock collapses.

1015                      Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia.

1016                 Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of AI Muizz.

1016                 Naval victory of Pisa and Genoa push the Muslims out of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

1016                 The Christians reclaim Sardinia.

1016                 The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is partially destroyed by earthquakes.

1017                 Beginning of the Druze sect in Lebanon.

1017                 Mahmud of Ghazna defeats the Ma’munid rulers of Khwarazm.

1018                 Abd ar-Rahman IV, Caliph of Cordove, Spain.

1018                 In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.

1018                 Mahmud pillages the city of Muttra in India.

1019                 Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1020                 Death of al-Kirmānī

 

1020                 Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

1020                 The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.

1020                 Death of Firdowsi of Persia, author of Shah Nama.Mahmud establishes Lahore as the capital of Punjab

1020                 Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

1020                 Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known asKnights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

1020                 The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.

1021                 Al Zahir becomes the Fatimid Caliph.

1021                 Caliph al-Hakim proclaimed himself to be divine and founded the Druze sect.

1021                 Death of al-Hakim, the Fatimid Caliph in Egypt. A group of Ismaili Shi’i are devoted to him, and believe he will return as the messiah. This group becomes known as the Druze.

1021                 Death of the Sufi al-Sulami, who composed a mystical commentary on the Koran and a biographical lexicon of the Sufi teaching tradition.

1023                 Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

1023                 -79The Arab dynasty oi the Mirdasids in Aleppo

1023                 -91The ‘Abbadids of Seville.

1023                 Death of the man of letters, philosopher and Sufi Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi .

1023                 Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

1024                 Death of ‘Abd al-Jabbār

1024                 In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi.

1024                 Mahmud raids temple of Somanath in Gujrat, India.

1025                 Al Baruni publishes Kitab ul Hind, a penetrating study of the people of India.

1025                 Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.

1025                 The power of the Byzantine Empire begins to decline.

1026                     Mahmud Ghazni reached to Somnath, Gujrat.

1026                 Richard II of Normandy leads a group of several hundred armed men on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the belief that the Day of Judgment had arrived. Turkish control of the region hampers their goals, however.

1027                 -31Hisham III, last Umayyad ruler of Cordoba..

1027                 The Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate. Byzantine leaders begin the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

1029                 Alp Arslan, “The Lion Hero,” is born. Arslan is the son of Togrul Beg, conqueror of Baghdad who made himself ruler of the Caliphate, and great-grandson of Seljuk, founder of the Seljuk Turkish empire.

1029                 In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.

1029                 Mahmud of Ghazna conquers Rayy and Jibal extending Ghaznavid authority to the west Persian plateau.

1030                 Death of Miskawayh

1030                 Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.

1030                 Mahmud’s son, Mas’ud, defeats his older brother, Muhammad, to become sultan of Ghazna. -41

1030                 The great polymath al-Biruni (973-c. 1050) completes his book on India (KitÉb mÉ li’l-hind). Struggles between futuwwa guilds and the Turkish garrison inBaghdad. Death of the philosopher and historian Miskawayh, who wrote works on philosophical ethics and history (‘The Experiences of the Nations’).

1030                 Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista.

1031                 Collapse of Umayyid Caliphate and establishment of 15 minor independent dynasties throughout Muslim Andalus

1031                 – 1075Al-Qa’im becomes Khalifa. He appoints political science and sociologist al-Mawardi (b.972-1058) as ambassador. The author of the DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY, his contributions in political science include the books, THE BOOK OF THE RULES OF GOVERNANCE and LAWS REGARDING THE MINISTERS.

1031                 The emir of Aleppo has the Krak des Chevaliers contructed.

1031                 The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

1031                 Caliphate of al-Qa’im, Iast phase of freedom of action on the part of the caliph before the coming of the Seljuqs. Al-Mawardi (d. -75

1031                 In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim.

1031                 In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim. Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1031                 The Cordoban Caliphate is abolished as Hashim III, the last of the Umayyad caliphs, is expelled. The next fifty years see the gradual fragmentation of rule in Spain into areas led by factional kings (taifas).

1031                 The emir of Aleppo has the Krak des Chevaliers contructed.

1031                 The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

1031                 The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba disintegrates. Spain breaks up into petty emirates. The Christian kingdoms of Castille, Leon and Portugal position themselves to attack the Muslim territories.Al Qaim becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.

1031                 The Umayyad hegemony in Spain ends as al-Andalus breaks up into small states.

1032                 Plague in Iraq, upper Mesopotamia and Syria.

1032                 The Church of Constantinople breaks with the Church of Rome over the issue of icons in the Church.

1033                 Castile is retaken from the Arabs.

1035                 The Byzantines make a landing in Sicily, but don’t try to recapture the island from the Muslims.

 

1036                 -7The Seljuqs Toghril Beg and Chaghri Beg conquer Khurasan from Mas’ud of Ghazna.

1036                 Al-Biruni, mathematician, astronomer, and physicist completes a treatise on astronomy called, “The Masudi Canon,” which includes astronomical tables and geographical coordinates of significant locations throughout the world. Centuries before Galileo, al-Biruni discussed the notion that the earth rotated on its own axis. He is known as one of the leading scientists of the Middle Ages and one of greatest of all time due to his significant contributions in mathematic, physics, botany, geography, and astronomy.

1036                 Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Zahir, accession of Mustansir. Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.

1036                 The Fatimid al-Mustansir, high point of the power and the beginning of the political and religious dissolution of the Fatimid caliphate. -94

1037                 Death of Ibn Sina in Hamadan. Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was a Persian physician and one of the most famous and influential Muslim philosopher-scientists. Particularly significant were his contributions to Aristotelian philosophy and to medicine .

1037                 Seljuq Turks under Tuğrul Bey sack the city of Ghazni.

1038                 Death of Al Hazen, noted physicist.

1038                 The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.

1038                 Toghril Beg, sultan in Nishapur, Chaghri Beg in Marv.

1039                 Death of Ibn al-Haytham, astronomer, mathematician and optician, sponsored by the Fatimid al-Hakim.

1039                 Death of ‘Onsori, chief panegyrist at the court of Mahmud of Ghazna. -40

1040                 Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. AI Moravids come to power in North Africa.

 

1040                 Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. AI Moravids come to power in North Africa.

1040                 Battle of Dandanqanthe Seljuqs Toghril and Chaghri overcome Mas’ud of Ghazna. End of Ghaznavid power in Khurasan and western Persia. The Ghaznavids survive in Ghazna (Sistan and in Northwest India).

1040                 Western Iran falls to the Seljuks. The Great Seljuk Empire is established.

1041                 The Ghaznavid Sultan Mohammad Ghaznavi is overthrown by Maw’dud Ghaznavi.

1041                 The Sel juqs under Toghril occupy Khwarazm.

1042                 The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.

1043                 Death of Abū al-Faraj ibn al-Ṭayyib

1043                 The Fatimid Empire begins to crumble. Makkah, Madina, Yemen and North Africa are lost by the Fatimids.

1043                 Toghril conquers the Caspian province ofTabaristan and the Persian city of Rayy (Tehran). After negotiating with the caliph, Toghril declares himself ‘protector of the commander of the faithful’. Syria slips from Fatimid control.

1044                 Campaigns of the Seljuqs against eastem Anatolia and Armenia threaten the Byzantine empire on its eastem frontier. -55

 

1044                 Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.

1045                 – 1099Life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (Arabic for “lord”), national hero of Spain. El Cid would become famous for his efforts to drive the Moors out of Spain.

 

1046                 Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.

1047                 The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.

1048                 May 18, Persian poet Umar Khayyam is born. His poem The Rubaiyat became popular in the West because of its use by Victorian Edward Fitzgerald.

1048                 Reconstruction of the Church of the Resurrection completed

1048                 Death of al Bairuni, historian, author of Kitab ul Hind.

1048                 Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.

1049                 Death of the Persian Sufi and preacher Abu Sa’id ibn Abl’l-Khayr of Nishapur. The Zirids of Qayrawan withdrew allegiance to the Fatimids. Cairo unleashes the Hilal Bedouin against Ifriqiyya as a reprisal measure (from 1050).

1050                 Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (aka Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.

1050                The expansion of the Arab tribes of the Banu Hilal and Sulaym into northwest Africa caused devastation of parts of the Maghrib, and was followed by a century of anarchy.

1050                 – 1200The first agricultural revolution of Medieval Europe begins in 1050 with a shift to the northern lands for cultivation, a period of improved climate from 700 to 1200 in western Europe, and the widespread use and perfection of new farming devices. Technological innovations include the use of the heavy plow, the three-field system of crop rotation, the use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper manufacture, and the widespread use of iron and horses. With an increase in agricultural advancements, Western towns and trade grow exponentially and Western Europe returns to a money economy.

1050                 Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos restores the complex of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

1050                 Duke Bohemond I (Bohemond Of Taranto, French Bohémond De Tarente), prince of Otranto (1089­1111) is born. One of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond would be largely responsible for the capture of Antioch and he secures the title Prince of Antioch (1098 – 1101, 1103 – 04).

1050                             Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.
1055                             Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.
1057                             Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
1059                             Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.
1060                             Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.
1062                             Death of the Zirid ruler AI Muizz, accession of Tamin.
1063                             Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.
1071                             Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.
1073                             Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.
1077                             Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qaim, accession of AI Muqtadi.
1082                             The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.
1086                             Battle of Zallakha. The AI Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.
1091                             The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
1092                             Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.
1094                             Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.
1095                             The first crusade.
1099                             The crusaders capture Jerusalem.

1050                 -1200The first agricultural revolution of Medieval Europe begins in 1050 with a shift to the northern lands for cultivation, a period of improved climate from 700 to 1200 in western Europe, and the widespread use and perfection of new farming devices. Technological innovations include the use of the heavy plow, the three-field system of crop rotation, the use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper manufacture, and the widespread use of iron and horses. With an increase in agricultural advancements, Western towns and trade grow exponentially and Western Europe returns to a money economy.

1050                 Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids (also known as Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers of Islam, focusing on the Quran, the hadith, and Maliki law.

1050                 Death of the lranian astronomer and polymath al-Biruni (b.973).

1050                 Duke Bohemond I (Bohemond Of Taranto, French Bohémond De Tarente), prince of Otranto (1089­1111) is born. One of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond would be largely responsible for the capture of Antioch and he secures the title Prince of Antioch (1098 – 1101, 1103 – 04).

1050                 The Christians advance in Sicily.

1050                 The Murabitun (Almoravids), warriors for the faith of the Sanhaja Berbers spread the Islamic revival movement in West Africa (Senegal estuary, Mauretania, Ghana, West Sudan).

1050                 Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.

1051                 Toghril conquers Jibal and its capital,Isfahan, from the Kakuyids. The Turcoman tnbes under Seljuk control advance to Azarbaijan and upper Mesorpotamia. 5. The Seljuq period 1044 – 1155 The Seljuqs rule in Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia with occasional forays into Syria and Arabia. Syria and Egypt are under the control of Atabegs and Ayyubids respectively. This is the period of the Crusader incursion into the Islamic world which begin in

1051                 Beginning of the Murabitun revolution in West Africa.

1052                 Pisa takes Sardinia back from the Arabs.

1054                 A famine in Egypt forces al Mustansir, 8th Fatimid caliph, to seek food and other commercial assistance from Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

1054                 Abdallah ben Yassim begins the Muslim conquest of West Africa.

1054                 July 16, 1054Great SchismThe Western Christian Church, in an effort to further enhance its power, had tried to impose Latin rites on Greek churches in southern Italy in 1052; as a consequence, Latin churches in Constantinople were closed. In the end, this leads to the excommunication of Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople (who in turn excommunicates Pope Leo IX). Although generally regarded as a minor event at the time, today it is treated as the final event that sealed the Great Schism between Eastern and Western Christianity.

1055                 Seljuk Prince Tughrul enters Baghdad, consolidation of the Seljuk Sultanate.

1055                 Sultanate of the “Great Seljuqs”- Toghril Beg, Alp Arslan, and Malikshah Toghril Beg seizes power in Baghdad, is recognised by the caliph al-Qa’im as Sultan of East and West, and puts an end to the principality of the Buyids.

1055                 Seljuk Prince Tughrul enters Baghdad, consolidation of the Seljuk Sultanate.

1055                  Confiscation of property of Church of the Resurrection

1055                 Expansion of Islam under the Seljuks and Christian responses. -1250:

1055                 Seljuk ruler, Toghrul Beg enters Baghdad. He was given the title of Sultan by Abbasid Khalifa al-Qa’im

1055                 Seljuk Turks establish a protectorate in Baghdad.

1055                 Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers.

1055                 Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.

1056                 Sanhaja Berbers of the Sahara (a tribal group of the Lamtuna) under Abu Bakr ibn ‘Umar establish the power of the Murabitun (Almoravids) in the Moroccan Atlas. -61

1056                 The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name “those who line up in defense of the faith,” this is a group of fanatical Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Spain until 1147.

1056                 The Seljuk Taghril Beg and the Buyid Basisiri contest the control of Baghdad.

1057                 The Banu Hilal destroy Qayrawan.

1057                 Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.

1058                 Death of al-Mawardi author of ‘The Ordinances of Government’, on the legal theory of the political institutions of Sunni Islam. Death of the blind poet Abu’l-‘Ala’ al-Ma’arri (born 973), a liberal sceptic whose spare and bleakly moral poetry was widely admired.

1058                 Taghril Beg is anointed by Abbasid Caliph Kaim as “sultan of the east and the west” for his role in protecting the Abbasid Caliphate.

1059                 Interregnum of al-Basasiri (Turkish general of the last Buyid) in Iraq in the name of the Fatimid caliph. -60

1059                 Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.

1060                 Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital

1060                 Death of Turkish slave general Abu Harith Basaseri.(15 January)

1060                 Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.

1060                 The Seljuk Turks advance into Persia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.The Crusaders raid the coast of North Africa.

1061                 Muslim Almoravid Dynasty in North Africa. Begins expansion toward Spain across the Gibraltar Straits.

1061                 Roger Guiscard lands at Sicily with a large Norman force and captures the city of Masara. The Norman reconquest of Sicily would require another 30 years.

1061                 The Almoravids (al-Murabitun) underYusuf ibnTashufin conquer Morocco, founding their capital at Marrakesh in 1062. In 1086 they cross the straits of Gibraltar and conquer Spain. Rigid legalism according to the doctrine of the Malikite legal school (?).-1106

1061                 The Murabitun capture Morocco.The Murabitun establish the city of Marrakesh as their capital.

1061                 The Normans conquer Sicily from lower Italy (1072 Palermo). -91

1062                 Death of the Zirid ruler AI Muizz, accession of Tamin.

1063                 Death of Ibn Ḥazm

1063                 Alp Arslan becomes the chief Seljuq sultan, first succeeding his father Chaghri Beg in 1061 as governor of eastern Iran, and then, after the defeating rival claimants at the battle of Damghan, to his uncle Toghril. He rules all Seljuq domains, and campaigns against the Fatimids in Syria (?) and the Byzantines in Anatolia. -72

1063                 Alp Arslan succeeds his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

1063                 Alp Arslan succeeds his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

1063                 Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.

1063                 Marrakesh founded in Morocco

1063                 Taghril Beg dies childless. His nephew Alap Arsalan becomes the Seljuk sultan.

1064                 Death of Ibn Hazm, Spanish politician, theologian and man of letters.

1064                 -1091The Normans recapture Sicily from the Muslims.

1064                 Attacks by Alp Arslan on Armenia and central Anatolia (1067 CaesareaKayseri, 1068 IconiumKonya). The Byzantine emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes, prepares to campaign against Armenia ( 1069). -68

1064                 Death in Spain of Ibn Hazm, a Muslim litterateur, historian, jurist, and theologian.

1064                 The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia.

1064                 The Seljuks, a Central Asian dynasty of Turkish descent that converted to Islam in the 990s, conquer Armenia.

1065                 Nizam al-Mulk, Persian vizier of the Seljuqs Alp Arslan and Malikshah. Centralises organisation of the empire in the Iranian tradition, and expands the iqta’ system of military land tenure, consolidating the urban and rural economies. -92

1065                 Sultan Arslan conquers Armenia and Georgia.

1065                 The Seljuks build the Nizamiyyah madrasa (school) in Baghdad.

1066                  An Arab mob seizes the vizier of Granada, Spain, Joseph HaNaid, and crucifies him. Muslims massacre the city’s Jewish quarter that night, December 30 – an approximate 5,000 murdered.

1066                 September 29, 1066William the Conqueror invades England and claims the English throne at the Battle of Hastings. Because William is both the King of England and the Duke of Normandy, The Norman Conquest fuses French and English cultures. The language of England evolves into Middle English with an English syntax and grammar and a heavily French vocabulary.

1067                 Nizam al-Mulk founds an important school of Shafi’ite law in Baghdad (al-madrasa al-nizÉmiyya).

1067                 Romanus IV Diogenes becomes the Byzantine Emperor.

1068                 Alp Arslan invades the Byzantine Empire and is repulsed by Romanus IV Diogenes over the course of three campaigns. Not until 1070, though, would the Turks be driven back across the Euphrates river.

1068                 Beginning of the Songhay Empire in West Africa.

1069                 Famine strikes Egypt, which does not recover until 1072.

1069                 In Kashgar (Turkestan) Yusuf of Balasaghun writes an allegorical poem in Eastem Turkish which marks the formal beginning of Islamic poetry in Turkish. -70

1070                 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Seljuk rule is not quite as tolerant as that of the Fatimids and Christian pilgrims begin returning to Europe with tales of persecution and oppression.

1070                 Brother Gerard, a leader of the Benedictine monks and nuns who run the hospices in Jerusalem. beings to organize The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known asKnights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller) as a more military force for the active protection of Christian pilgrims.

1071                 Alp Arslan destroys the Byzantine army at Malazkirt (Manzikert) in Armenia and captures the emperor Romanos Diogenes, opening of Anatolia to Turcoman occupation. Rise of Malik Danishmand as leader of an autonomous principality of Turcomans in north and east Anatolia.

1071                 Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and occupy much of Anatolia.

1071                 Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.

1071                 -1085 Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine.

1071                 August 19, 1071Battle of ManzikertAlp Arslan leads an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van. Numbering perhaps as many as 100,000 men, the Turks take the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes can respond. Although Diogenes is able to recapture Akhlat, the siege of Manzikert fails when a Turkish relief force arrives and Andronicus Ducas, an enemy of Romanus Diogenes, refuses to obey orders to fight. Diogenes himself is captured and released, but he would be murdered after his return to Constantinople. Partly because of the defeat at Manzikert and partly due to the civil wars following the murder of Digoenes, Asia Minor would be left open to Turkish invasion.

1071                 Battle of Manzikert. Sultan Arslan defeats the Byzantines. Most of Asia Minor is conquered by the Seljuks. The beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire.

1071                 Normans conquer the last Byzantine holdings in Italy.

1071                 Normans conquer the last Byzantine holdings in Italy.

1071                 The Seljuk Turks, lead by Alph Arslan, defeat Byzantine forces and seize control of Asia Minor (modern Turkey).

1071                 Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.

1072                 Normans under Robert Giscard conquered Palermo (Sicily). Death of al-Qushayri author of a classical handbook of Sufism. Death of Alp Arslan on campaign against the Qarakhanids in Transoxiana.

1072                 Palermo falls to the Norman adventurers Roger I and Robert Guiscard. Guiscard allows to the inhabitants the right to practice their religion and a certain autonomy.

1072                 Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuk Turks under Alap Arsalan defeat the Byzantines under Emperor Romanus and open up Anatolia for Turkish settlement.The Christians capture Palermo in Sicily.

1072                 December 15, 1072Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeds his father as Seljuk Sultan.

1072                 December 15,Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeds his father as Seljuk Sultan.

1072                 Famine ends in Egypt.The Normans begin a conquest of Sicily.

1072                 The Seljuq sultan Malikshah. -92

1073                 Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders)

1073                 Death of Alp Arslan, accession of Malik ShahBadr al-Jamali takes power as the vizier of the Fatimid Caliphate.

 

1073                 Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

1074                 July 1074El Cid marries Jimena, niece of Alfonso IV of Castile and daughter of the Count of Oviedo.

1075                 (?) Death of the Sufi al-Hujwiri, who wrote the first systematic treatment of the life and teaching of the Sufis in Persian.

1075                 –1094 Al-Muqtadi Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1075                 Seljuks (Muslim ) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital in Anatolia.

1075                 The Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah retakes Syria and Palestine. from the Fatimids.Al Muqtadi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.

1076                 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.

1076                 End of Fatimid domination in Syriathe Turkish general Atsiz occupies Damascus and requests help from the Seljuqs. Sulayman ibn Qutalmish (Qutlumush) conquers Nicaea (Iznik) and so establishes the Seljuq house of Anatolia (the Seljuqs of Rum), which maintains its independence until 1307, when it comes under Mongol authority.

1077                  Atsiz b. Awaq marches on Jerusalem promising to give them quarter. They open the gates to him whereby his forces slaughter 3,000. Awaq proceeds to repeat variants of this successful feint at Ramla, Gaza, al-‘Arish, Damascus, and Jaffa.

1077                 Birth of Abdul Qader Jeelani, celebrated Sufi sage.

1077                 Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qaim, accession of AI Muqtadi.

1077                 Seljuq Turks found Sultanate of Rûm in Turkey.

1077                 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Suleyman ibn Kutalmish declares himself Sultan. Establishes Nicaea as his capital.

1078                 The Seljuq Tutush, brother of sultan Malikshah, maintains full authority over Syria and Palestine and supplants Atsiz, and establishes a line of Seljuq rulers in Syria that continues until 1117.

1078                 Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea. It would change hands three more times, finally coming under control of the Turks again in 1086.

1079                 Battle of CabraEl Cid led his troops to a rout of Emir Abd Allah of Granada.

1080                 An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees feeling the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, “Armenia Minor” would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

1080                 An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees feeling the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, “Armenia Minor” would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

1080                 Order of the Hospital of St. John is founded in Italy. This special order of knights was dedicated to guarding a pilgrim hospital, or hostel, in Jerusalem.

1081                 formulates the classical theory of the caliphate.

1081                 El Cid, now a mercenary because he had been exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu’tamin, and would remain there for his successor, al-Mu’tamin II.

1082                 Ibn Tumart, founder of the Amohad Dynasty, is born in the Atlas mountains..

1082                 The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria. 1082 The leaderof the Almoravids Yusuf ibn Tashufin (1062-1106) controls an extensive territory in North Africa.

1083                 Alfonso VI of Castille and Leon defeats al-Mu’tamid of Seville and conquers Toledo with the forces of the Reconquista. Death of the theologian al-Juwayni, teacher of al-Ghazali (d. 1111).

1084                 Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch, a strategically important city.

1085                 Death of al-Juwaynī

1085                 October 25, The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

1085                 Toledo is taken back by Christian armies.

1085                 After a four-year siege, Toledo delivers itself up to Alfonso VI.

1085                 Alfonso I of Castile captures Toledo, the ancient capital of Visigoth Spain. The extensive libraries of Toledo become accessible to Christian Europe.

1085                 Alfonso IV captures Toledo from the Moors.

1085                 In Spain, the Christian king Alfonso VI of Castile seizes Toledo.

1085                 Latin Christians take Toledo

1085                 October 25, 1085The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

1085                 The Reconquista. The Christian armies of Castilian King Alfonso VI seize Toledo.

1086                 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca.

1086                 October 23, Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas) Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile are defeated by the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids (Berbers from Morocco and Algeria, led by Yusef I ibn Tashufin), thus preserving Muslim rule in al-Andalus. The slaughter of Spaniards was great and Yusef refused to abide by his agreement to leave Andalusia in the hands of the Moors. His intention was actually to make Andalusia an African colony ruled by the Almorivids in Morocco.

1086                 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of Zallaca
1000 CE, 390 A.H The city of Timbuktu is founded. As traders settle there, they bring Islamic scholars with them. Islamic scholars spoke and wrote Arabic. West African tribes spoke many different languages and so Islam gave them one language to speak. Nearly every Muslim in

1086                 Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.

1086                 October 23,  Yusuf ibn Tashufin defeats the Spanish Christians under Alfonso VI in the battle of Zallaqa at Badajoz. Supremacy of the Almoravids in al-Andalus until 1148.

1086                 The Nizamiya College is founded in Baghdad by Nizam ul Mulk, grand vizier to Sultan Malik Shah.

1087                 CE, 480 A.H Soninke gain control from Al Moravids.

1087                 September 13,Birth of John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.

1087                 Yusuf bin Tashfin defeats Alfonso VI at the Battle of Sagrajas.

1088                 Death of Nasir-i Khusraw in Balkh the Isma’ili leader, who published works of theology and poetry, and an account of his travels from central Asia to Egypt and back (1045-52). The Fatimids take Acre, Tyre and other ports on the Palestinian coast.

1088                 March 12, 1088Urban II is elected pope. An active supporter of the Gregorian reforms, Urban would become responsible for launching the First Crusade.

1088                 Patzinak Turks begin forming settlements between the Danube and the Balkans.

1089                 Death of ‘Abdallah al-Ansari, Hanbalite Sufi poet and writer.

1089                 Byzantine forces conquer the island of Crete.

1090                 – 1091 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Island

1090                 The Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashufin after suppressing the petty rulers of al-Andalus (mulÅk at-tawÉ;if) becomes sole ruler of Muslim Spain.

1090                 Al Ghazzali teaches at NizamiyaCollege, Baghdad.The Crusaders capture Malta.The assassins capture Alamut in northern Syria and establish a training center for fidayees.

1090                 Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and Balearic Islands. -1091

1090                 Hasan ibn al-Sabbah Grand Master of the militant Assassins, theNizari sect of the Isma’ilis, establishes himself and his followers in the fortress of Alamut in the Alburz mountains. -1124

1090                 Hasan ibn al-Sabbah, first “Old Man of the Mountains,” founds the Assassin sect in Persia (modern Iraq).

1090                 Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him.

1090                 Hassan-i Sabbah captures Alamut, making it an Isma’ilite stronghold.

1090                 Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.

1091                 Cordova (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

1091                 End of Muslim presence in Sicily.Smyrna in Anatolia becomes the Seljuk capital..The assassins murder grand vizier Nizam ul Mulk.

1091                 Norman conquest of Sicily ends. 1091 The Seljuqs make Baghdad their capital. from 1092 Numerous uprisings of popular militias (‘ayyÉrin) in Baghdad.

1091                 The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.

1091                 The Isma’ilis, a Shi’ite sect, foment a revolt against Seljuk and Sunni hegemony and help to set the domestic and international policy of the Fatimids. The Qarmatians meantime controlled East Arabia and remained independent of the growing Fatimid caliphate.

1092                 The Assassins murder theSeljuq vizier Nizam al-Mulk. With the death of Malikshah the era of unified control of the Seljuq empire by one Sultan ends, and the khans of the Seljuq clan divide up the empire among themselves.

1092                 After the death of Seljuk Sultan (al-sultan , “the power”) Malik Shah I, the capital of the Seljuks is moved from Iconjium to Smyrna and the empire itself dissolves into several smaller states.

1092                 Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.

1092                 In Iznik (Nicaea) after a six year lapse Qãlãch Arslan renews the authority of the Seljuqs of Rum in Anatolia, and defends his state against the Turkish Danishmendids in eastern Anatolia and with the Crusaders in the west. -1107

1092                 Nizam al-Mulk, vizier to the Saljuq Turks, assassinated by an Isma’ili da’i . Founder of the Nizamiyyah schools, prestigious educational institutions that are the predecessors and prototypes of the universities to be established in Europe.

1094            Berkiyaruq in Baghdad as Sultan.

1094                 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against Seljuk invasions of his territory; Seljuks are Muslim Turkish family of eastern origins; see 970.

1094                 – Death of Seljuk Sultan Mahmud I; accession of Barkiyaruq. Deathof theAbbasidCaliphAl-Muqtadi,

1094                 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against Seljuk invasions of his territory; Seljuks are Muslim Turkish family of eastern origins; see 970.

1094                – Caliphate of al-Mustazhir. The deaths of the amir Badr al-Jamali and of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir begin the collapse of Fatimid authority. 1118

1094                 Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.r. 1094–1118 Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1094                 May El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.

1094                 Al Mustansir becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.Al Mustadi becomes the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo.

1094                 August 1094The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.

1094                 AugustThe Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.

1094                 Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.

1094                 Death of Seljuk Sultan Mahmud I; accession of Barkiyaruq. Deathof theAbbasidCaliphAl-Muqtadi,

1094                 May 1094El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.

1094                 Promising riches and women, Alexius Comnenus I, emperor of Byzantine, calls for aid against the threat of the Seljuks to his empire.

1095                  The first crusade.

1095                 November 18, Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

1095                 November 18,Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

1095                 The jurist and theologian al-Ghazali gives up his chair at the Nizamiyya at Baghdad and in seclusion writes his principal work, The Revival of the Religious Sciences’. – 1106

1095                 The Seljuq Tutush falls in the war for succession against Berkyaruq, who was sultan in Baghdad 1094-1105. His sons Ridwan governs Aleppo until 1113, and Duqaq, governs in Damascus until 1114. The Fatimids take southern Palestine. The Byzantine emperor Alexius seeks help against the Seliuqs from the Pope. At the Council of Clairmont, Pope Urban II preaches the Crusade to Jerusalem.

1095                 Pope Urban II preaches the first Crusade; composed largely of civilian volunteers, the initial thrust is utterly slaughtered. A second attempt by government soldiers captures Jerusalem in 1099. (Come the 20th century, all the aforementioned provocations would be forgotten by many, and this year misremembered as the year Christianity went on a senseless killing spree.)

1095                 Pope Urban II preaches first Crusade; they capture Jerusalem in 1099

1095                 At the Council of Clermont, in France, Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade to take the Holy Land from Muslim rule.

1095                 November 18, 1095Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

1095                 Pope Urban II declares a Crusade to take Jerusalem.Al Afdal, grand vizier of Fatimid Egypt, recaptures Jerusalem from Turkish emir Duqaq of Damascus.

1095                 Pope Urban II preaches to Christians that their faith is being attacked and they must fight Islam and capture the Holy City. He summons the First Crusade.

1095                 The al-Sufi family provides the ra’is of Damascus-1153

1095                 The first crusade.

1096                 Beginning of the First Crusade to conquer Jerusalem, instigated by Pope Urban II.

1096                 August, 1096Emperor Alexius of Constantinople shipped the Peasants’ Crusade over the Bosporus.

1096                 Late Summer, 1096First Crusade leaders depart Europe.

1096                 October 1096Peasants’ Crusade annihilated in Anatolia by the Turks.

1096                 Peasants’ (or PeopleÕs) Crusade sets out from Europe. Three armies don’t make it past Hungary.

1096                 Spring, 1096Peasants’ (or PeopleÕs) Crusade sets out from Europe. Three armies don’t make it past Hungary.

1096                 Spring-Summer 1096Massacres against German Jews occur on the way to the Holy Land.Ê Crusaders believe that the battle against Christ’s enemies ought to begin at home.

1096                 The start of the First Crusade.

1097                 October 21, Ð June 3, 1098Crusader siege of Antioch.

1097                Victory of the Crusaders over Qãlãch Arslan I at Dorylaeum (northwest Anatolia). The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon take Nicaea (Iznikl, place Tarsus under the rule of Tancred ??, and besiege Antioch.The Anatolian Seliuqs made Konya their capital. Baldwin of Boulogne Duke of Edessa.

1097                 First Crusade contingents assembling in Constantinople.

1097                 May 14-June 19 Siege of Nicaea.

1097                 December 31, 1097First Battle of Harenc. Turkish prisoners were dragged within sight of the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

1097                 December 31,First Battle of Harenc. Turkish prisoners were dragged within sight of the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

1097                 End of April First Crusade began the march in Anatolia to Nicaea.

1097                 July 1, 1097Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir).

1097                 Konya Anatolia becomes the Seljuk capital.The Turks retreat before the advancing Crusaders.The Fatimids in Egypt start negotiations with the Crusaders to divide up Seljuk territories.

1097                 May 14ÐJune 19 1097Siege of Nicaea.

1097                 October 21, 1097 Ð June 3, 1098 Crusader siege of Antioch.

1097                 Spring, 1097First Crusade contingents assembling in Constantinople.

1098                 February 9 Second Battle of Harenc.

1098                 Jun 14, 1098Peter Bartholomew discovers the supposed Holy Lance (the weapon which had stabbed Jesus during his crucifixion.)Ê Crusader morale skyrockets.

1098                 Mar 10,Citizens of Edessa give Baldwin control of the city.

1098                 The Crusaders (Bohemond of Tarentum) take Antioch. The Fatimid vizier al-Afdal takes Jerusalem from the Artuqids.

1098                 Nov 27-Dec 11,Crusaders capture M’arrat-an-Numan.

1098                 Crusaders defeat the Muslim forces at Antioch.

1098                 February,Emperor Alexius’ general Tacitius abandons the siege of Antioch.

1098                 Jun 1,Stephen of Blois and a large group of French crusaders flee the siege of Antioch with news of the arrival of Emir Kerboga of Mosul and his army of 75,000.

1098                 Jun 14,Peter Bartholomew discovers the supposed Holy Lance (the weapon which had stabbed Jesus during his crucifixion.)Ê Crusader morale skyrockets.

1098                 Jun 28, 1098Battle of Orontes. Crusader victory forces Kerboga to lift the siege of Antioch.

1098                 Jun 3, 1098Antioch falls to Bohemond and the remaining crusaders.

1098                 Jun 5-9, 1098KerbogaÕs army arrives before Antioch, forcing Bohemond to assume the role of the beseiged.

1098                 Mar 10, 1098Citizens of Edessa give Baldwin control of the city.

1098                 Nov 27-Dec 11, 1098Crusaders capture M’arrat-an-Numan.

1099                 April 20,Peter Bartholomew dies after attempting an ordeal by fire to prove the authenticity of the Hold Lance.

1099                 Aug 12,Battle of Ascalon. According to most accounts (both crusader and Muslim), the Fatimids were caught unprepared and the battle was short. Al-Afdal left behind his camp and its treasures, which were captured by Robert and Tancred. Crusader losses are unknown, but the Egyptians lost about 10-12 000 men. After the battle, almost all of the remaining crusaders returned to their homes in Europe, their vows of pilgrimage having been fulfilled. There were perhaps only a few hundred knights left in Jerusalem by the end of the year, but they were gradually reinforced by new crusaders, inspired by the success of the original crusade. Ascalon itself remained under Fatimid control and was soon re-garrisoned. It became the base of operations for invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem every year afterwards, and numerous battles were fought there in the following years, until it was finally captured by the crusaders in 1153.

1099                 Mid-May, Raymond lifts the siege of Argah and pushes to Jerusalem.

1099                 The Crusaders conquer Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon guardian (advocatus) of the Holy Sepulchre. Defeat of the Fatimids (al-Afdal) before the sea fortress of Acre. End of the First Crusade.

1099                  The crusaders capture Jerusalem.

1099                 April 20, 1099Peter Bartholomew dies after attempting an ordeal by fire to prove the authenticity of the Hold Lance.

1099                 Aug 12, 1099 Battle of Ascalon. According to most accounts (both crusader and Muslim), the Fatimids were caught unprepared and the battle was short. Al-Afdal left behind his camp and its treasures, which were captured by Robert and Tancred. Crusader losses are unknown, but the Egyptians lost about 10-12 000 men. After the battle, almost all of the remaining crusaders returned to their homes in Europe, their vows of pilgrimage having been fulfilled. There were perhaps only a few hundred knights left in Jerusalem by the end of the year, but they were gradually reinforced by new crusaders, inspired by the success of the original crusade. Ascalon itself remained under Fatimid control and was soon re-garrisoned. It became the base of operations for invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem every year afterwards, and numerous battles were fought there in the following years, until it was finally captured by the crusaders in 1153.

1099                 Crusaders take Jerusalem

1099                 Feb 14, Raymond begins the disorganized siege of Arqah, near Tripoli.

1099                 Jan 13, 1099Raymond of Toulouse, after disagreeing with Bohemund about the future crusader course of action, leads the majority of crusaders away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem.

1099                 Jul 15, In the only fully coordinated operation of the First Crusade, Godfrey’s forces succeed in scaling the walls of Jerusalem (near Herod’s Gate) through the effective use of a massive siege tower and ladders.ÊÊ Once in the city, the Crusaders massacre the garrison of Fatimid Moslems and a large percentage of the Moslem and Jewish population.Ê Godfrey was elected Guardian of Jerusalem.

1099                 Jun 13, Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem by storm.

1099                 Jun 7, Crusaders reach the walls of Jerusalem.

1099                 Late Mar, Godfrey and Robert of Flanders join the siege of Arqah.

1099                 Mid-May, 1099 Raymond lifts the siege of Argah and pushes to Jerusalem.

1099                 The crusaders capture Jerusalem.